Objective: Our objective is to assess the outcomes of patients with prostate cancer (PCa) diagnoses undergoing holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP). Methods: From 2009 to 2012, 450 patients underwent HoLEP at our institution. We performed a retrospective review of these patients to identify those with PCa. Results: PCa was diagnosed in 57 (12.7%) HoLEP patients: 11 (19.2%) preoperatively, 43 (75.4%) in the operative specimen, and 3 (5.4%) during follow-up. Mean time to PCa development in the postoperative group was 16 months (9-23). There was no difference in patient characteristics for those diagnosed with PCa at the time of HoLEP or in the postoperative period. There were 5 patients with a Gleason score (GS)>8 and 52 with GS<8 PCa. In the operative group, 39 (91%) elected for active surveillance and 4 (9%) elected to have cancer treatment. In subgroup analysis, men diagnosed with GS>8 intraoperatively or postoperatively had significantly elevated preoperative, postoperative, and percent change prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels when compared to patients diagnosed GS≤7 (P=0.01, 0.02, and 0.01, respectively). There were no complications, all voided spontaneously, and one patient had persistent incontinence. Conclusion: HoLEP for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in selectively chosen men with known PCa can safely improve urination. Furthermore, PCa is diagnosed at the time of or post HoLEP in nearly 12% of patients. Those patients with persistently elevated post HoLEP PSA levels or low percent change PSA levels should raise suspicion for high GS PCa. Finally, HoLEP does not preclude active surveillance or treatment for PCa when appropriate.
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