Hominids adapted to metabolize ethanol long before human-directed fermentation

Matthew A. Carrigan, Oleg Uryasev, Carole B. Frye, Blair L. Eckman, Candace R. Myers, Thomas Hurley, Steven A. Benner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

28 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Paleogenetics is an emerging field that resurrects ancestral proteins from now-extinct organisms to test, in the laboratory, models of protein function based on natural history and Darwinian evolution. Here, we resurrect digestive alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH4) from our primate ancestors to explore the history of primate-ethanol interactions. The evolving catalytic properties of these resurrected enzymes show that our ape ancestors gained a digestive dehydrogenase enzyme capable of metabolizing ethanol near the time that they began using the forest floor, about 10 million y ago. The ADH4 enzyme in our more ancient and arboreal ancestors did not efficiently oxidize ethanol. This change suggests that exposure to dietary sources of ethanol increased in hominids during the early stages of our adaptation to a terrestrial lifestyle. Because fruit collected from the forest floor is expected to contain higher concentrations of fermenting yeast and ethanol than similar fruits hanging on trees, this transition may also be the first time our ancestors were exposed to (and adapted to) substantial amounts of dietary ethanol.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)458-463
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume112
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 13 2015

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Hominidae
Fermentation
Ethanol
Primates
Fruit
Enzymes
Alcohol Dehydrogenase
Natural History
Life Style
Oxidoreductases
Proteins
Yeasts
History

Keywords

  • Alcohol dehydrogenase
  • Ethanol
  • Evolution
  • Experimental paleogenetics
  • Primates

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Hominids adapted to metabolize ethanol long before human-directed fermentation. / Carrigan, Matthew A.; Uryasev, Oleg; Frye, Carole B.; Eckman, Blair L.; Myers, Candace R.; Hurley, Thomas; Benner, Steven A.

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 112, No. 2, 13.01.2015, p. 458-463.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Carrigan, Matthew A. ; Uryasev, Oleg ; Frye, Carole B. ; Eckman, Blair L. ; Myers, Candace R. ; Hurley, Thomas ; Benner, Steven A. / Hominids adapted to metabolize ethanol long before human-directed fermentation. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2015 ; Vol. 112, No. 2. pp. 458-463.
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