Hominids adapted to metabolize ethanol long before human-directed fermentation

Matthew A. Carrigan, Oleg Uryasev, Carole B. Frye, Blair L. Eckman, Candace R. Myers, Thomas D. Hurley, Steven A. Benner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

38 Scopus citations


Paleogenetics is an emerging field that resurrects ancestral proteins from now-extinct organisms to test, in the laboratory, models of protein function based on natural history and Darwinian evolution. Here, we resurrect digestive alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH4) from our primate ancestors to explore the history of primate-ethanol interactions. The evolving catalytic properties of these resurrected enzymes show that our ape ancestors gained a digestive dehydrogenase enzyme capable of metabolizing ethanol near the time that they began using the forest floor, about 10 million y ago. The ADH4 enzyme in our more ancient and arboreal ancestors did not efficiently oxidize ethanol. This change suggests that exposure to dietary sources of ethanol increased in hominids during the early stages of our adaptation to a terrestrial lifestyle. Because fruit collected from the forest floor is expected to contain higher concentrations of fermenting yeast and ethanol than similar fruits hanging on trees, this transition may also be the first time our ancestors were exposed to (and adapted to) substantial amounts of dietary ethanol.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)458-463
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 13 2015


  • Alcohol dehydrogenase
  • Ethanol
  • Evolution
  • Experimental paleogenetics
  • Primates

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Hominids adapted to metabolize ethanol long before human-directed fermentation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this