Mammals have four peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs or PGLYRPs), which are secreted innate immunity pattern recognition molecules with effector functions. In this study, we demonstrate that human PGLYRP-1, PGLYRP-3, PGLYRP-4, and PGLYRP-3:4 have Zn2+-dependent bactericidal activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria at physiologic Zn 2+ concentrations found in serum, sweat, saliva, and other body fluids. The requirement for Zn2+ can only be partially replaced by Ca2+ for killing of Gram-positive bacteria but not for killing of Grain-negative bacteria. The bactericidal activity of PGLYRPs is salt insensitive and requires N-glycosylation of PGLYRPs. The LD99 of PGLYRPs for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria is 0.3-1.7 μM, and killing of bacteria by PGLYRPs, in contrast to killing by antibacterial peptides, does not involve permeabilization of cytoplasmic membrane. PGLYRPs and antibacterial peptides (phospholipase A2, α- and β-defensins, and bactericidal permeability-increasing protein), at subbactericidal concentrations, synergistically kill Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. These results demonstrate that PGLYRPs are a novel class of recognition and effector molecules with broad Zn2+-dependent bactericidal activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria that are synergistic with antibacterial peptides.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy