GATA-1 is one of the six members of the GATA gene family, a group of related transcription factors discovered in the 1980s. In the past few decades, the crucial role of GATA-1 in normal human hematopoiesis has been delineated. As would be expected, mutations in GATA-1 have subsequently been found to have important clinical significance, and are directly linked to deregulated formation of certain blood cell lineages. This paper reviews the functional consequences of GATA-1 mutations by linking specific errors in the gene, or its downstream protein products, to documented human diseases. These five human diseases are: X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT), X-linked thrombocytopenia with thalassemia (XLTT), congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP), transient myeloproliferative disorder (TMD) and acute megarakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) associated with Trisomy 21, and, lastly, a particular subtype of anemia associated with the production of GATA-1s, a shortened, mutant isoform of the wild-type GATA-1. The different phenotypic expressions associated with GATA-1 mutations illustrate the integral function of the transcription factor in overall body homeostasis. Furthermore, these direct genotype-phenotype correlations reinforce the importance of unraveling the human genome, as such connections may lead to important therapeutic or preventive therapies.
- Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia
- Congenital erythropoietic porphyria
- Gray platelet syndrome
- Trisomy 21
- X-linked thrombocytopenia
- X-linked thrombocytopenia with thalassemia
ASJC Scopus subject areas