Our laboratory has developed two cellular models of human prostate cancer progression. The LNCaP prostate cancer progression model is based upon the wellknown cellular interaction between human prostate or bone stromal cells and LNCaP cells in vivo. The marginally tumorigenic LNCaP cells acquired tumorigenic and metastatic potential upon cellular interaction with either prostate or bone fibroblasts. A subline termed C4-2 was observed to grow readily in castrated animals and acquired metastatic potential spreading from the primary tumor site to the lymph node, the seminal vesicles, and the axial skeleton, resulting in an intense osteoblastic reaction. The second model is ARCaP, where prostate cancer cells derived from the ascites fluid of a man with metastatic disease exhibited an Androgen- and estrogen-Repressed Prostate Cancer cell growth and tumor formation in either a hormone-deficient or a castrated environment. However, the growth of either the tumor cells in vitro or the tumors in vivo was suppressed by both estrogen and androgen. While the tumor cells expressed low levels of androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen (PSA), they were highly metastatic when inoculated orthotopically. Distant metastases to a number of organs were detected including the liver, lung, kidney, and bone.
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