Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is a novel signaling molecule most recently found to be of fundamental importance in cellular function as a regulator of apoptosis, inflammation, and perfusion. Mechanisms of endogenous H 2 S signaling are poorly understood; however, signal transmission is thought to occur via persulfidation at reactive cysteine residues on proteins. Although much has been discovered about how H 2 S is synthesized in the body, less is known about how it is metabolized. Recent studies have discovered a multitude of different targets for H 2 S therapy, including those related to protein modification, intracellular signaling, and ion channel depolarization. The most difficult part of studying hydrogen sulfide has been finding a way to accurately and reproducibly measure it. The purpose of this review is to: elaborate on the biosynthesis and catabolism of H 2 S in the human body, review current knowledge of the mechanisms of action of this gas in relation to ischemic injury, define strategies for physiological measurement of H 2 S in biological systems, and review potential novel therapies that use H 2 S for treatment.
- Hydrogen sulfide
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Emergency Medicine
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine