Hypercalciuria and calcium stone disease

B. E C Nordin, Munro Peacock, R. Wilkinson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

55 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The investigation and classification of any patient with respect to urinary calcium excretion requires the measurement of the 24 hr calcium output on low and normal calcium intakes (150 and 100 mg Ca) and of the fasting plasma and urinary calcium and creatinine. Such investigation shows that hypercalciuria may be absolute or relative. Absolute hypercalciuria signifies a urine calcium over 400 mg in men or 300 mg in women and it may be dietary, absorptive or resorptive in origin. It contributes directly to the formation of calcium stones by increasing the risk of oversaturation of the urine with calcium salts. Relative hypercalciuria signifies that the urine calcium is high relative to the dietary or plasma calcium. The former is usually due to hyperabsorption but may be produced by increased net bone resorption. The latter indicates reduced tubular reabsorption of calcium and is present in hypoparathyroidism and metabolic acidosis; it does not contribute directly to calcium stone disease. Since the basic abnormality in 'idiopathic hypercalciuria' is hyperabsorption of calcium, and since this may be associated with a normal urine calcium if dietary calcium is low, it seems advisable to dispense with the term 'idiopathic hypercalciuria' and use instead a more precise terminology. 'Hypercalciuria' is an acceptable descriptive term as long as it is not taken to signify a diagnosis any more than 'glycosuria'. The clinician's objective should be to investigate calcium absorption and excretion in calcium stone disease even if the urine calcium on a free diet appears to be normal, since hyperabsorption and/or hypercalciuria will be found in at least 50% of cases and can provide a rational basis for therapy designed to lower the calcium concentration in the urine. Whatever the 'cause' of calcium stones may be, it is clear that such calculi cannot be formed from an undersaturated urine. (Journal received: Jan. 1975)

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)169-183
Number of pages15
JournalClinics in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Volume1
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1972
Externally publishedYes

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Hypercalciuria
Calcium
Urine
Plasmas
Glycosuria
Dietary Calcium
Hypoparathyroidism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology

Cite this

Hypercalciuria and calcium stone disease. / Nordin, B. E C; Peacock, Munro; Wilkinson, R.

In: Clinics in Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1972, p. 169-183.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nordin, BEC, Peacock, M & Wilkinson, R 1972, 'Hypercalciuria and calcium stone disease', Clinics in Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 169-183.
Nordin, B. E C ; Peacock, Munro ; Wilkinson, R. / Hypercalciuria and calcium stone disease. In: Clinics in Endocrinology and Metabolism. 1972 ; Vol. 1, No. 1. pp. 169-183.
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