Hyperglycemia-induced insulin resistance in diabetic dyslipidemic Yucatan swine

Christine R. Otis, Brian R. Wamhoff, Michael Sturek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

43 Scopus citations

Abstract

Hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and associated insulin resistance are hallmarks of diabetes mellitus. Purposes of the study reported here were to develop practical methods for assessment of in vivo insulin sensitivity and determine contributions of hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia to insulin resistance in the porcine model of alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. Male Yucatan swine groups were treated for 20 weeks: control (C), high fat-fed (2% cholesterol) hyperlipidemic (H), alloxan-induced diabetic normolipidemic (D), diabetic high fat-fed (diabetic dyslipidemic, DD), and diabetic dyslipidemic treated with the lipid-lowering agent atorvastatin (DDA). Plasma cholesterol concentration increased sixfold in animals of groups H, DD, and DDA, whereas triglyceride concentration increased threefold in animals of group DD only. Diabetics had decreases in glucose tolerance and pancreatic immunostaining for insulin. Use of the gold standard hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp procedure indicated that maximal insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was similar to that in humans, but this method was not practical for use in pigs. Instead, a more convenient and valid insulin sensitivity test involving suppression of insulin secretion with somatostatin and a single insulin injection was used. Insulin sensitivity was greatly impaired by anesthesia with isoflurane, but was not affected by use of the anxiolytic agent diazepam. Insulin sensitivity decreased by 75% in diabetics (groups D, DD, DDA), compared with animals of groups C and H, and was inversely related to fasting blood glucose concentration (r = -0.72). Insulin treatment to restore blood glucose values of diabetics (> 250 mg/dl) to near control values (< 100 mg/dl) promptly restored insulin sensitivity to control values. We conclude that hyperglycemia is a major cause of insulin resistance in the porcine model of alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)53-64
Number of pages12
JournalComparative medicine
Volume53
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1 2003
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • veterinary(all)

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