Major papilla pancreatic sphincter dysfunction, a variant of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, causes pancreatitis or pancreatic-type pain. Endoscopic manometry as performed at endoscopic retrograde cholangiography is the most commonly used method to identify sphincter dysfunction. Noninvasive testing, such as secretin stimulated ultrasound analysis of duct diameter, is less reliable and of relatively low sensitivity. Two-thirds of patients with sphincter of Oddi dysfunction have elevated pancreatic basal sphincter pressure. Patients with suspected or documented sphincter of Oddi dysfunction may respond to biliary sphincterotomy alone, but warrant evaluation of their pancreatic sphincter if symptoms persist after therapy. Whether such pancreatic and biliary sphincters should be treated at the first treatment session is controversial. Pancreatic sphincterotomy is associated with a complication rate very similar to that of biliary sphincterotomy except that the pancreatitis rate is two- to fourfold higher. Prophylactic pancreatic stenting diminishes such pancreatitis by approximately 50%.
- Biliary sphincterotomy
- Pancreatic sphincterotomy
- Papilla pancreatic sphincter hypertension
- Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction
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