The nucleotide excision repair pathway catalyzes the removal of bulky adduct damage from DNA and requires the activity of more than 30 individual proteins and complexes. A diverse array of damage can be recognized and removed by the NER pathway including UV-induced adducts and intrastrand adducts induced by the chemotherapeutic compound cisplatin. The recognition of DNA damage is complex and involves a series of proteins including the xeroderma pigmentosum group A and C proteins and the UV-damage DNA binding protein. The xeroderma pigmentosum group A protein is unique in the sense that it is required for both transcription coupled and global genomic nucleotide excision repair. In addition, xeroderma pigmentosum group A protein is required for the removal of all types of DNA lesions repaired by nucleotide excision repair. Considering its importance in the damage recognition process, the minimal information available on the mechanism of DNA binding, and the potential that inhibition of xeroderma pigmentosum group A protein could enhance the therapeutic efficacy of platinum based anticancer drugs, we sought to identify and characterize small molecule inhibitors of the DNA binding activity of the xeroderma pigmentosum group A protein. In silico screening of a virtual small molecule library resulted in the identification of a class of molecules confirmed to inhibit the xeroderma pigmentosum group A protein-DNA interaction. Biochemical analysis of inhibition with varying DNA substrates revealed a common mechanism of xeroderma pigmentosum group A protein DNA binding to single-stranded DNA and cisplatin-damaged DNA.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine