Background: Bidirectional promoters are shared promoter sequences between divergent gene pair (genes proximal to each other on opposite strands), and can regulate the genes in both directions. In the human genome, > 10% of protein-coding genes are arranged head-to-head on opposite strands, with transcription start sites that are separated by < 1,000 base pairs. Many transcription factor binding sites occur in the bidirectional promoters that influence the expression of 2 opposite genes. Recently, RNA polymerase II (RPol II) ChIP-seq data are used to identify the promoters of coding genes and non-coding RNAs. However, a bidirectional promoter with RPol II ChIP-Seq data has not been found. Results: In some bidirectional promoter regions, the RPol II forms a bi-peak shape, which indicates that 2 promoters are located in the bidirectional region. We have developed a computational approach to identify the regulatory regions of all divergent gene pairs using genome-wide RPol II binding patterns derived from ChIP-seq data, based upon the assumption that the distribution of RPol II binding patterns around the bidirectional promoters are accumulated by RPol II binding of 2 promoters. In HeLa S3 cells, 249 promoter pairs and 1094 single promoters were identified, of which 76 promoters cover only positive genes, 86 promoters cover only negative genes, and 932 promoters cover 2 genes. Gene expression levels and STAT1 binding sites for different promoter categories were therefore examined. Conclusions: The regulatory region of bidirectional promoter identification based upon RPol II binding patterns provides important temporal and spatial measurements regarding the initiation of transcription. From gene expression and transcription factor binding site analysis, the promoters in bidirectional regions may regulate the closest gene, and STAT1 is involved in primary promoter.
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