Impact of equol-producing capacity and soy-isoflavone profiles of supplements on bone calcium retention in postmenopausal women

A randomized crossover trial<sup>1,2</sup>

Jessica W. Pawlowski, Berdine R. Martin, George P. McCabe, Linda McCabe, George S. Jackson, Munro Peacock, Stephen Barnes, Connie M. Weaver

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

25 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Postmenopausal estrogen depletion is a major contributing factor to bone loss. Soy isoflavones have variable effects on the prevention of postmenopausal bone loss, which is possibly related to the specific isoflavone content or the variable equolproducing capacity of individuals. Objective: We aimed to determine the effects of the content of isoflavones in a soy supplement and the equol-producing ability of the individual on postmenopausal bone calcium retention. Design: The study was a blinded, randomized, crossover intervention trial in 24 postmenopausal women who were prescreened for their ability to convert daidzein to equol. Women were equilibrated with 41Ca before the intervention. Interventions were 5 soy isoflavone oral supplements (2 doses of a genistein-rich soy supplement and 3 doses of mixed isoflavones in various proportions) and a bisphosphonate (risedronate). Each intervention was given sequentially for 50 d followed by a 50-d washout period. The percentage of bone calcium retention was determined from the change in urinary 41Ca:calcium. Results: Interventions that ranged from 52 to 220 mg total isoflavones/d increased bone calcium retention between 3.4% and 7.6% (P , 0.05), which was a moderate effect compared with that of risedronate at 15.3% (95% CI: 7.1%, 22.7%; P = 0.0014). The mosteffective soy intervention delivered 105.23 mg total isoflavones/d as genistein, daidzein, and glycitein in their natural ratios and increased bone calcium retention by 7.6% (95% CI: 4.9%, 10.2%; P , 0.0001). Genistein, at 52.85 mg/d, increased bone calcium retention by 3.4% (95% CI: 0.5%, 6.2%; P = 0.029); but there was no benefit at higher amounts (113.52 mg/d). There was no difference (P = 0.5) in bone calcium retention between equol producers and nonproducers. Conclusion: Soy isoflavones, although not as potent as risedronate, are effective bone-preserving agents in postmenopausal women regardless of their equol-producing status, and mixed isoflavones in their natural ratios are more effective than enriched genistein.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)695-703
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume102
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2015

Fingerprint

Equol
Isoflavones
Calcium
Bone and Bones
Genistein
Postmenopausal Osteoporosis
Diphosphonates
Cross-Over Studies
Estrogens

Keywords

  • <sup>41</sup>Ca
  • Bone resorption
  • Equol
  • Genistein
  • Postmenopausal women
  • Soy isoflavones

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Impact of equol-producing capacity and soy-isoflavone profiles of supplements on bone calcium retention in postmenopausal women : A randomized crossover trial<sup>1,2</sup> / Pawlowski, Jessica W.; Martin, Berdine R.; McCabe, George P.; McCabe, Linda; Jackson, George S.; Peacock, Munro; Barnes, Stephen; Weaver, Connie M.

In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 102, No. 3, 01.09.2015, p. 695-703.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pawlowski, Jessica W. ; Martin, Berdine R. ; McCabe, George P. ; McCabe, Linda ; Jackson, George S. ; Peacock, Munro ; Barnes, Stephen ; Weaver, Connie M. / Impact of equol-producing capacity and soy-isoflavone profiles of supplements on bone calcium retention in postmenopausal women : A randomized crossover trial<sup>1,2</sup>. In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2015 ; Vol. 102, No. 3. pp. 695-703.
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abstract = "Background: Postmenopausal estrogen depletion is a major contributing factor to bone loss. Soy isoflavones have variable effects on the prevention of postmenopausal bone loss, which is possibly related to the specific isoflavone content or the variable equolproducing capacity of individuals. Objective: We aimed to determine the effects of the content of isoflavones in a soy supplement and the equol-producing ability of the individual on postmenopausal bone calcium retention. Design: The study was a blinded, randomized, crossover intervention trial in 24 postmenopausal women who were prescreened for their ability to convert daidzein to equol. Women were equilibrated with 41Ca before the intervention. Interventions were 5 soy isoflavone oral supplements (2 doses of a genistein-rich soy supplement and 3 doses of mixed isoflavones in various proportions) and a bisphosphonate (risedronate). Each intervention was given sequentially for 50 d followed by a 50-d washout period. The percentage of bone calcium retention was determined from the change in urinary 41Ca:calcium. Results: Interventions that ranged from 52 to 220 mg total isoflavones/d increased bone calcium retention between 3.4{\%} and 7.6{\%} (P , 0.05), which was a moderate effect compared with that of risedronate at 15.3{\%} (95{\%} CI: 7.1{\%}, 22.7{\%}; P = 0.0014). The mosteffective soy intervention delivered 105.23 mg total isoflavones/d as genistein, daidzein, and glycitein in their natural ratios and increased bone calcium retention by 7.6{\%} (95{\%} CI: 4.9{\%}, 10.2{\%}; P , 0.0001). Genistein, at 52.85 mg/d, increased bone calcium retention by 3.4{\%} (95{\%} CI: 0.5{\%}, 6.2{\%}; P = 0.029); but there was no benefit at higher amounts (113.52 mg/d). There was no difference (P = 0.5) in bone calcium retention between equol producers and nonproducers. Conclusion: Soy isoflavones, although not as potent as risedronate, are effective bone-preserving agents in postmenopausal women regardless of their equol-producing status, and mixed isoflavones in their natural ratios are more effective than enriched genistein.",
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T1 - Impact of equol-producing capacity and soy-isoflavone profiles of supplements on bone calcium retention in postmenopausal women

T2 - A randomized crossover trial1,2

AU - Pawlowski, Jessica W.

AU - Martin, Berdine R.

AU - McCabe, George P.

AU - McCabe, Linda

AU - Jackson, George S.

AU - Peacock, Munro

AU - Barnes, Stephen

AU - Weaver, Connie M.

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N2 - Background: Postmenopausal estrogen depletion is a major contributing factor to bone loss. Soy isoflavones have variable effects on the prevention of postmenopausal bone loss, which is possibly related to the specific isoflavone content or the variable equolproducing capacity of individuals. Objective: We aimed to determine the effects of the content of isoflavones in a soy supplement and the equol-producing ability of the individual on postmenopausal bone calcium retention. Design: The study was a blinded, randomized, crossover intervention trial in 24 postmenopausal women who were prescreened for their ability to convert daidzein to equol. Women were equilibrated with 41Ca before the intervention. Interventions were 5 soy isoflavone oral supplements (2 doses of a genistein-rich soy supplement and 3 doses of mixed isoflavones in various proportions) and a bisphosphonate (risedronate). Each intervention was given sequentially for 50 d followed by a 50-d washout period. The percentage of bone calcium retention was determined from the change in urinary 41Ca:calcium. Results: Interventions that ranged from 52 to 220 mg total isoflavones/d increased bone calcium retention between 3.4% and 7.6% (P , 0.05), which was a moderate effect compared with that of risedronate at 15.3% (95% CI: 7.1%, 22.7%; P = 0.0014). The mosteffective soy intervention delivered 105.23 mg total isoflavones/d as genistein, daidzein, and glycitein in their natural ratios and increased bone calcium retention by 7.6% (95% CI: 4.9%, 10.2%; P , 0.0001). Genistein, at 52.85 mg/d, increased bone calcium retention by 3.4% (95% CI: 0.5%, 6.2%; P = 0.029); but there was no benefit at higher amounts (113.52 mg/d). There was no difference (P = 0.5) in bone calcium retention between equol producers and nonproducers. Conclusion: Soy isoflavones, although not as potent as risedronate, are effective bone-preserving agents in postmenopausal women regardless of their equol-producing status, and mixed isoflavones in their natural ratios are more effective than enriched genistein.

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