Impact of omega-3 and trans fatty acids on vascular remodeling: Opposing roles in cardiovascular health

Rafat A. Siddiqui, Kevin Harvey, Steven Miller, Gary Zaloga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have well-recognized cardio-beneficial effects that include reductions in atherosclerotic lesions and mortality from myocardial infarction, stroke, and sudden cardiac death. In contrast, evidence suggests that more than 30,000 premature coronary deaths per year in the US alone are associated with consumption of high levels of trans isomers of unsaturated fatty acids, or trans fatty acids (TFAs). Epidemiological evidence from four large cohort studies overwhelmingly supports the conclusion that TFAs are linked to coronary heart disease (CHD). CHD in patients is associated with pathological vascular remodeling (PVR) and impaired compensatory vascular remodeling (CVR). PVR is characterized by thickening of vessel walls, reduction in elasticity, and occlusion of vessels, resulting in restricted blood flow. CVR represents a physiological process whereby vessels from a pre-existing arteriolar network develop into collateral arteries, effectively bypassing the site of arterial occlusion. The structure and function of vascular endothelial cell membranes are altered by both PVR and CVR. Oxidative stress and the induction of endothelial adhesion molecules promote PVR and inhibit CVR. It is known that n-3 PUFAs inhibit the release of soluble adhesion molecules and proinflammatory cytokines whereas TFA consumption has been linked to an increased release of these proinflammatory mediators. However, it is not known whether the changes in cell membrane composition induced by n-3 PUFAs or TFAs impact development of PVR and CVR directly or whether the changes result indirectly from altered expression and/or release of proinflammatory mediators. This review summarizes studies suggesting that n-3 PUFAs and TFAs have opposing effects on endothelial cells and that their effects on the endothelium might play an important role in vascular remodeling.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)60-72
Number of pages13
JournalCurrent Enzyme Inhibition
Volume4
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 2008

Fingerprint

Trans Fatty Acids
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Health
Endothelial cells
Cell membranes
Adhesion
Polyunsaturated fatty acids
Molecules
Oxidative stress
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Isomers
Elasticity
Coronary Disease
Blood
Vascular Remodeling
Endothelial Cells
Cytokines
Cell Membrane
Physiological Phenomena
Premature Mortality

Keywords

  • Adhesion molecules
  • Endothelial cells
  • n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
  • Oxidative stress
  • Trans fatty acids

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Drug Discovery

Cite this

Impact of omega-3 and trans fatty acids on vascular remodeling : Opposing roles in cardiovascular health. / Siddiqui, Rafat A.; Harvey, Kevin; Miller, Steven; Zaloga, Gary.

In: Current Enzyme Inhibition, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2008, p. 60-72.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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