Implementing a screening and diagnosis program for dementia in primary care

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Primary care physicians are positioned to provide early recognition and treatment of dementia. We evaluated the feasibility and utility of a comprehensive screening and diagnosis program for dementia in primary care. METHODS: We screened individuals aged 65 and older attending 7 urban and racially diverse primary care practices in Indianapolis. Dementia was diagnosed according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 criteria by an expert panel using the results of neuropsychologic testing and information collected from patients, caregivers, and medical records. RESULTS: Among 3,340 patients screened, 434 scored positive but only 227 would agree to a formal diagnostic assessment. Among those who completed the diagnostic assessment, 47% were diagnosed with dementia, 33% had cognitive impairment-no dementia (CIND), and 20% were considered to have no cognitive deficit. The overall estimated prevalence of dementia was 6.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.5% to 6.6%) and the overall estimate of the program cost was $128 per patient screened for dementia and $3.983 per patient diagnosed with dementia. Only 19% of patients with confirmed dementia diagnosis had documentation of dementia in their medical record. CONCLUSIONS: Dementia is common and undiagnosed in primary care. Screening instruments alone have insufficient specificity to establish a valid diagnosis of dementia when used in a comprehensive screening program; these results may not be generalized to older adults presenting with cognitive complaints. Multiple health system and patient-level factors present barriers to this formal assessment and thus render the current standard of care for dementia diagnosis impractical in primary care settings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)572-577
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of General Internal Medicine
Volume20
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2005

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Dementia
Primary Health Care
Medical Records
Primary Care Physicians
International Classification of Diseases
Standard of Care
Documentation
Caregivers
Confidence Intervals
Costs and Cost Analysis

Keywords

  • Cognitive impairment
  • Dementia
  • Primary care
  • Screening
  • Vulnerable adult

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine

Cite this

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title = "Implementing a screening and diagnosis program for dementia in primary care",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Primary care physicians are positioned to provide early recognition and treatment of dementia. We evaluated the feasibility and utility of a comprehensive screening and diagnosis program for dementia in primary care. METHODS: We screened individuals aged 65 and older attending 7 urban and racially diverse primary care practices in Indianapolis. Dementia was diagnosed according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 criteria by an expert panel using the results of neuropsychologic testing and information collected from patients, caregivers, and medical records. RESULTS: Among 3,340 patients screened, 434 scored positive but only 227 would agree to a formal diagnostic assessment. Among those who completed the diagnostic assessment, 47{\%} were diagnosed with dementia, 33{\%} had cognitive impairment-no dementia (CIND), and 20{\%} were considered to have no cognitive deficit. The overall estimated prevalence of dementia was 6.0{\%} (95{\%} confidence interval (CI) 5.5{\%} to 6.6{\%}) and the overall estimate of the program cost was $128 per patient screened for dementia and $3.983 per patient diagnosed with dementia. Only 19{\%} of patients with confirmed dementia diagnosis had documentation of dementia in their medical record. CONCLUSIONS: Dementia is common and undiagnosed in primary care. Screening instruments alone have insufficient specificity to establish a valid diagnosis of dementia when used in a comprehensive screening program; these results may not be generalized to older adults presenting with cognitive complaints. Multiple health system and patient-level factors present barriers to this formal assessment and thus render the current standard of care for dementia diagnosis impractical in primary care settings.",
keywords = "Cognitive impairment, Dementia, Primary care, Screening, Vulnerable adult",
author = "Malaz Boustani and Christopher Callahan and Frederick Unverzagt and Mary Austrom and Perkins, {Anthony J.} and Fultz, {Bridget A.} and Siu Hui and Hugh Hendrie",
year = "2005",
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T1 - Implementing a screening and diagnosis program for dementia in primary care

AU - Boustani, Malaz

AU - Callahan, Christopher

AU - Unverzagt, Frederick

AU - Austrom, Mary

AU - Perkins, Anthony J.

AU - Fultz, Bridget A.

AU - Hui, Siu

AU - Hendrie, Hugh

PY - 2005/7

Y1 - 2005/7

N2 - BACKGROUND: Primary care physicians are positioned to provide early recognition and treatment of dementia. We evaluated the feasibility and utility of a comprehensive screening and diagnosis program for dementia in primary care. METHODS: We screened individuals aged 65 and older attending 7 urban and racially diverse primary care practices in Indianapolis. Dementia was diagnosed according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 criteria by an expert panel using the results of neuropsychologic testing and information collected from patients, caregivers, and medical records. RESULTS: Among 3,340 patients screened, 434 scored positive but only 227 would agree to a formal diagnostic assessment. Among those who completed the diagnostic assessment, 47% were diagnosed with dementia, 33% had cognitive impairment-no dementia (CIND), and 20% were considered to have no cognitive deficit. The overall estimated prevalence of dementia was 6.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.5% to 6.6%) and the overall estimate of the program cost was $128 per patient screened for dementia and $3.983 per patient diagnosed with dementia. Only 19% of patients with confirmed dementia diagnosis had documentation of dementia in their medical record. CONCLUSIONS: Dementia is common and undiagnosed in primary care. Screening instruments alone have insufficient specificity to establish a valid diagnosis of dementia when used in a comprehensive screening program; these results may not be generalized to older adults presenting with cognitive complaints. Multiple health system and patient-level factors present barriers to this formal assessment and thus render the current standard of care for dementia diagnosis impractical in primary care settings.

AB - BACKGROUND: Primary care physicians are positioned to provide early recognition and treatment of dementia. We evaluated the feasibility and utility of a comprehensive screening and diagnosis program for dementia in primary care. METHODS: We screened individuals aged 65 and older attending 7 urban and racially diverse primary care practices in Indianapolis. Dementia was diagnosed according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 criteria by an expert panel using the results of neuropsychologic testing and information collected from patients, caregivers, and medical records. RESULTS: Among 3,340 patients screened, 434 scored positive but only 227 would agree to a formal diagnostic assessment. Among those who completed the diagnostic assessment, 47% were diagnosed with dementia, 33% had cognitive impairment-no dementia (CIND), and 20% were considered to have no cognitive deficit. The overall estimated prevalence of dementia was 6.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.5% to 6.6%) and the overall estimate of the program cost was $128 per patient screened for dementia and $3.983 per patient diagnosed with dementia. Only 19% of patients with confirmed dementia diagnosis had documentation of dementia in their medical record. CONCLUSIONS: Dementia is common and undiagnosed in primary care. Screening instruments alone have insufficient specificity to establish a valid diagnosis of dementia when used in a comprehensive screening program; these results may not be generalized to older adults presenting with cognitive complaints. Multiple health system and patient-level factors present barriers to this formal assessment and thus render the current standard of care for dementia diagnosis impractical in primary care settings.

KW - Cognitive impairment

KW - Dementia

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KW - Screening

KW - Vulnerable adult

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