Improving depressive symptoms among caregivers of patients with cancer: results of a randomized clinical trial.

S. L. Kozachik, C. W. Given, B. A. Given, S. J. Pierce, F. Azzouz, Susan Rawl, Victoria Champion

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

75 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: Determine the impact of a 16-week supportive nursing intervention on caregivers of patients with newly diagnosed cancer. DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Two midwestern cancer treatment sites. SAMPLE: Caregivers of newly diagnosed patients. Patients' mean age was 55.73 years; 55% had breast cancer, and 76% were female. Caregivers' mean age was 52.44 years, and 50% were female. 125 dyads consented to participate; 89 dyads completed the study. METHODS: A nursing intervention was delivered to the experimental group that emphasized symptom monitoring/management, education, emotional support, coordination of services, and caregiver preparation to care. Nurses made a total of nine contacts, five in person and four by telephone, over 16 weeks. Centers for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) and a symptom inventory were used. Medical record audits were conducted retrospectively. MAIN RESEARCH VARIABLES: Patient and caregiver depression scores and patient symptom experience. FINDINGS: Baseline caregiver depression and the number of patient symptoms at baseline, 9, and 24 weeks were significant predictors of caregiver depression at 9 and 24 weeks. However, no main effect of the experimental condition existed on caregiver depression. At the final observation, a nonsignificant inverse relationship was found between the number of interventions and depression scores for caregivers. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention appeared to be more effective in slowing the rate of deterioration of depressive symptoms than in decreasing levels of depression in this sample of caregivers. Determining the effectiveness of this intervention in decreasing caregiver depression was difficult because caregivers with higher levels of depression were more likely to withdraw from the study. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE: Nurses must be vigilant in monitoring caregivers for signs of depression and must intervene to provide emotional support and make appropriate referrals for follow-up care to promote positive outcomes for patients and caregivers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1149-1157
Number of pages9
JournalOncology Nursing Forum
Volume28
Issue number7
StatePublished - Aug 2001

Fingerprint

Caregivers
Randomized Controlled Trials
Depression
Neoplasms
Nursing
Nurses
Medical Audit
Aftercare
Telephone
Medical Records
Epidemiologic Studies
Referral and Consultation
Observation
Breast Neoplasms
Education

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology(nursing)

Cite this

Improving depressive symptoms among caregivers of patients with cancer : results of a randomized clinical trial. / Kozachik, S. L.; Given, C. W.; Given, B. A.; Pierce, S. J.; Azzouz, F.; Rawl, Susan; Champion, Victoria.

In: Oncology Nursing Forum, Vol. 28, No. 7, 08.2001, p. 1149-1157.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kozachik, S. L. ; Given, C. W. ; Given, B. A. ; Pierce, S. J. ; Azzouz, F. ; Rawl, Susan ; Champion, Victoria. / Improving depressive symptoms among caregivers of patients with cancer : results of a randomized clinical trial. In: Oncology Nursing Forum. 2001 ; Vol. 28, No. 7. pp. 1149-1157.
@article{5d2b547ec3104c1d945f5c8bc6cd9033,
title = "Improving depressive symptoms among caregivers of patients with cancer: results of a randomized clinical trial.",
abstract = "PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: Determine the impact of a 16-week supportive nursing intervention on caregivers of patients with newly diagnosed cancer. DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Two midwestern cancer treatment sites. SAMPLE: Caregivers of newly diagnosed patients. Patients' mean age was 55.73 years; 55{\%} had breast cancer, and 76{\%} were female. Caregivers' mean age was 52.44 years, and 50{\%} were female. 125 dyads consented to participate; 89 dyads completed the study. METHODS: A nursing intervention was delivered to the experimental group that emphasized symptom monitoring/management, education, emotional support, coordination of services, and caregiver preparation to care. Nurses made a total of nine contacts, five in person and four by telephone, over 16 weeks. Centers for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) and a symptom inventory were used. Medical record audits were conducted retrospectively. MAIN RESEARCH VARIABLES: Patient and caregiver depression scores and patient symptom experience. FINDINGS: Baseline caregiver depression and the number of patient symptoms at baseline, 9, and 24 weeks were significant predictors of caregiver depression at 9 and 24 weeks. However, no main effect of the experimental condition existed on caregiver depression. At the final observation, a nonsignificant inverse relationship was found between the number of interventions and depression scores for caregivers. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention appeared to be more effective in slowing the rate of deterioration of depressive symptoms than in decreasing levels of depression in this sample of caregivers. Determining the effectiveness of this intervention in decreasing caregiver depression was difficult because caregivers with higher levels of depression were more likely to withdraw from the study. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE: Nurses must be vigilant in monitoring caregivers for signs of depression and must intervene to provide emotional support and make appropriate referrals for follow-up care to promote positive outcomes for patients and caregivers.",
author = "Kozachik, {S. L.} and Given, {C. W.} and Given, {B. A.} and Pierce, {S. J.} and F. Azzouz and Susan Rawl and Victoria Champion",
year = "2001",
month = "8",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "28",
pages = "1149--1157",
journal = "Oncology Nursing Forum",
issn = "1538-0688",
publisher = "Oncology Nursing Society",
number = "7",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Improving depressive symptoms among caregivers of patients with cancer

T2 - results of a randomized clinical trial.

AU - Kozachik, S. L.

AU - Given, C. W.

AU - Given, B. A.

AU - Pierce, S. J.

AU - Azzouz, F.

AU - Rawl, Susan

AU - Champion, Victoria

PY - 2001/8

Y1 - 2001/8

N2 - PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: Determine the impact of a 16-week supportive nursing intervention on caregivers of patients with newly diagnosed cancer. DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Two midwestern cancer treatment sites. SAMPLE: Caregivers of newly diagnosed patients. Patients' mean age was 55.73 years; 55% had breast cancer, and 76% were female. Caregivers' mean age was 52.44 years, and 50% were female. 125 dyads consented to participate; 89 dyads completed the study. METHODS: A nursing intervention was delivered to the experimental group that emphasized symptom monitoring/management, education, emotional support, coordination of services, and caregiver preparation to care. Nurses made a total of nine contacts, five in person and four by telephone, over 16 weeks. Centers for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) and a symptom inventory were used. Medical record audits were conducted retrospectively. MAIN RESEARCH VARIABLES: Patient and caregiver depression scores and patient symptom experience. FINDINGS: Baseline caregiver depression and the number of patient symptoms at baseline, 9, and 24 weeks were significant predictors of caregiver depression at 9 and 24 weeks. However, no main effect of the experimental condition existed on caregiver depression. At the final observation, a nonsignificant inverse relationship was found between the number of interventions and depression scores for caregivers. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention appeared to be more effective in slowing the rate of deterioration of depressive symptoms than in decreasing levels of depression in this sample of caregivers. Determining the effectiveness of this intervention in decreasing caregiver depression was difficult because caregivers with higher levels of depression were more likely to withdraw from the study. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE: Nurses must be vigilant in monitoring caregivers for signs of depression and must intervene to provide emotional support and make appropriate referrals for follow-up care to promote positive outcomes for patients and caregivers.

AB - PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: Determine the impact of a 16-week supportive nursing intervention on caregivers of patients with newly diagnosed cancer. DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Two midwestern cancer treatment sites. SAMPLE: Caregivers of newly diagnosed patients. Patients' mean age was 55.73 years; 55% had breast cancer, and 76% were female. Caregivers' mean age was 52.44 years, and 50% were female. 125 dyads consented to participate; 89 dyads completed the study. METHODS: A nursing intervention was delivered to the experimental group that emphasized symptom monitoring/management, education, emotional support, coordination of services, and caregiver preparation to care. Nurses made a total of nine contacts, five in person and four by telephone, over 16 weeks. Centers for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) and a symptom inventory were used. Medical record audits were conducted retrospectively. MAIN RESEARCH VARIABLES: Patient and caregiver depression scores and patient symptom experience. FINDINGS: Baseline caregiver depression and the number of patient symptoms at baseline, 9, and 24 weeks were significant predictors of caregiver depression at 9 and 24 weeks. However, no main effect of the experimental condition existed on caregiver depression. At the final observation, a nonsignificant inverse relationship was found between the number of interventions and depression scores for caregivers. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention appeared to be more effective in slowing the rate of deterioration of depressive symptoms than in decreasing levels of depression in this sample of caregivers. Determining the effectiveness of this intervention in decreasing caregiver depression was difficult because caregivers with higher levels of depression were more likely to withdraw from the study. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE: Nurses must be vigilant in monitoring caregivers for signs of depression and must intervene to provide emotional support and make appropriate referrals for follow-up care to promote positive outcomes for patients and caregivers.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0035434124&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0035434124&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 11517848

AN - SCOPUS:0035434124

VL - 28

SP - 1149

EP - 1157

JO - Oncology Nursing Forum

JF - Oncology Nursing Forum

SN - 1538-0688

IS - 7

ER -