In situ efficacy of an experimental toothpaste on enamel rehardening and prevention of demineralisation: A randomised, controlled trial

Jonathan E. Creeth, Gary R. Burnett, Audrey Souverain, Paola Gomez-Pereira, Domenick T. Zero, Frank Lippert, Anderson T. Hara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Background: A novel sodium fluoride toothpaste containing lactate ion and polyvinylmethylether-maleic anhydride has been developed to promote enamel remineralisation and resistance to demineralisation. In this in situ study, we compared this toothpaste ('Test') with a stannous fluoride-zinc citrate (SnF2-Zn) toothpaste ('Reference') (both 1100-1150 ppm fluoride) and a fluoride-free toothpaste ('Placebo') using an enamel dental erosion-rehardening model. Methods: In each phase of this randomised, investigator-blind, crossover study, participants wore palatal appliances holding bovine enamel specimens with erosive lesions. They brushed their natural teeth with either the Test, Reference or Placebo toothpastes, then swished the resultant slurry. Specimens were removed at 2 h and 4 h post-brushing and exposed to an in vitro acid challenge. Surface microhardness was measured at each stage; enamel fluoride uptake was measured after in situ rehardening. Surface microhardness recovery, relative erosion resistance, enamel fluoride uptake and acid resistance ratio were calculated at both timepoints. Results: Sixty two randomised participants completed the study. Test toothpaste treatment yielded significantly greater surface microhardness recovery, relative erosion resistance and enamel fluoride uptake values than either Reference or Placebo toothpastes after 2 and 4 h. The acid resistance ratio value for Test toothpaste was significantly greater than either of the other treatments after 2 h; after 4 h, it was significantly greater versus Placebo only. No treatment-related adverse events were reported. Conclusions: In this in situ model, the novel-formulation sodium fluoride toothpaste enhanced enamel rehardening and overall protection against demineralisation compared with a fluoride-free toothpaste and a marketed SnF2-Zn toothpaste. Trial registration:; NCT03296072; registered September 28, 2017.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number118
JournalBMC Oral Health
Issue number1
StatePublished - Apr 17 2020


  • Clinical study
  • Dentifrice
  • Erosion
  • Sodium fluoride

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)

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