In Vitro Effects of Plantago Major Extract, Aucubin, and Baicalein on Candida Albicans Biofilm Formation, Metabolic Activity, and Cell Surface Hydrophobicity

Karina Pezo Shirley, L. Windsor, George J. Eckert, Richard Gregory

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: To determine the in vitro effectiveness of Plantago major extract, along with two of its active components, aucubin and baicalein, on the inhibition of Candida albicans growth, biofilm formation, metabolic activity, and cell surface hydrophobicity. Materials and Methods: Twofold dilutions of P. major, aucubin, and baicalein were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC), and the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) of each solution. Separately, twofold dilutions of P. major, aucubin, and baicalein were used to determine the metabolic activity of established C. albicans biofilm using a 2,3-bis (2- methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-carboxanilide reduction assay. Twofold dilutions of P. major, aucubin, and baicalein were used to determine the cell surface hydrophobicity of treated C. albicans biofilm by a two-phase assay using hexadecane. The hydrophobicity percentage of the cell surface was then calculated. A mixed-model ANOVA test was used for intergroup comparisons. Results: The MICs of P. major extract (diluted 1:2 to 1:8), aucubin (61 to 244 μg/ml), and baicalein (0.0063 to 100 μg/ml) on the total growth of C. albicans were noticeable at their highest concentrations, and the inhibition was dose dependent. The MFC was evaluated after 48 hours of incubation, and aucubin (244 μg/ml) exhibited a strong fungicidal activity at its highest concentration against C. albicans growth. The MBIC indicated no growth or reduced growth of C. albicans biofilm at the highest concentrations of aucubin (61 to 244 μg/ml) and baicalein (25 to 100 μg/ml). Similarly, the effects of these reagents on C. albicans biofilm metabolic activity and hydrophobicity demonstrated high effectiveness at their highest concentrations. Conclusion: P. major extract, aucubin, and baicalein caused a dose-dependent reduction on the total growth, biofilm formation, metabolic activity, and cell surface hydrophobicity of C. albicans. This demonstrates their effectiveness as antifungals and suggests their promising potential use as solutions for C. albicans biofilm-related infections.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Prosthodontics
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2015

Fingerprint

Plantago
Biofilms
Candida albicans
Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Growth
baicalein
In Vitro Techniques
aucubin
Analysis of Variance

Keywords

  • Antifungal
  • Biofilm
  • Candidiasis
  • Crystal violet
  • Denture stomatitis
  • Hexadecane

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)

Cite this

@article{c055924db341493faf605039aa067aa9,
title = "In Vitro Effects of Plantago Major Extract, Aucubin, and Baicalein on Candida Albicans Biofilm Formation, Metabolic Activity, and Cell Surface Hydrophobicity",
abstract = "Purpose: To determine the in vitro effectiveness of Plantago major extract, along with two of its active components, aucubin and baicalein, on the inhibition of Candida albicans growth, biofilm formation, metabolic activity, and cell surface hydrophobicity. Materials and Methods: Twofold dilutions of P. major, aucubin, and baicalein were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC), and the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) of each solution. Separately, twofold dilutions of P. major, aucubin, and baicalein were used to determine the metabolic activity of established C. albicans biofilm using a 2,3-bis (2- methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-carboxanilide reduction assay. Twofold dilutions of P. major, aucubin, and baicalein were used to determine the cell surface hydrophobicity of treated C. albicans biofilm by a two-phase assay using hexadecane. The hydrophobicity percentage of the cell surface was then calculated. A mixed-model ANOVA test was used for intergroup comparisons. Results: The MICs of P. major extract (diluted 1:2 to 1:8), aucubin (61 to 244 μg/ml), and baicalein (0.0063 to 100 μg/ml) on the total growth of C. albicans were noticeable at their highest concentrations, and the inhibition was dose dependent. The MFC was evaluated after 48 hours of incubation, and aucubin (244 μg/ml) exhibited a strong fungicidal activity at its highest concentration against C. albicans growth. The MBIC indicated no growth or reduced growth of C. albicans biofilm at the highest concentrations of aucubin (61 to 244 μg/ml) and baicalein (25 to 100 μg/ml). Similarly, the effects of these reagents on C. albicans biofilm metabolic activity and hydrophobicity demonstrated high effectiveness at their highest concentrations. Conclusion: P. major extract, aucubin, and baicalein caused a dose-dependent reduction on the total growth, biofilm formation, metabolic activity, and cell surface hydrophobicity of C. albicans. This demonstrates their effectiveness as antifungals and suggests their promising potential use as solutions for C. albicans biofilm-related infections.",
keywords = "Antifungal, Biofilm, Candidiasis, Crystal violet, Denture stomatitis, Hexadecane",
author = "Shirley, {Karina Pezo} and L. Windsor and Eckert, {George J.} and Richard Gregory",
year = "2015",
doi = "10.1111/jopr.12411",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "Journal of Prosthodontics",
issn = "1059-941X",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - In Vitro Effects of Plantago Major Extract, Aucubin, and Baicalein on Candida Albicans Biofilm Formation, Metabolic Activity, and Cell Surface Hydrophobicity

AU - Shirley, Karina Pezo

AU - Windsor, L.

AU - Eckert, George J.

AU - Gregory, Richard

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Purpose: To determine the in vitro effectiveness of Plantago major extract, along with two of its active components, aucubin and baicalein, on the inhibition of Candida albicans growth, biofilm formation, metabolic activity, and cell surface hydrophobicity. Materials and Methods: Twofold dilutions of P. major, aucubin, and baicalein were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC), and the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) of each solution. Separately, twofold dilutions of P. major, aucubin, and baicalein were used to determine the metabolic activity of established C. albicans biofilm using a 2,3-bis (2- methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-carboxanilide reduction assay. Twofold dilutions of P. major, aucubin, and baicalein were used to determine the cell surface hydrophobicity of treated C. albicans biofilm by a two-phase assay using hexadecane. The hydrophobicity percentage of the cell surface was then calculated. A mixed-model ANOVA test was used for intergroup comparisons. Results: The MICs of P. major extract (diluted 1:2 to 1:8), aucubin (61 to 244 μg/ml), and baicalein (0.0063 to 100 μg/ml) on the total growth of C. albicans were noticeable at their highest concentrations, and the inhibition was dose dependent. The MFC was evaluated after 48 hours of incubation, and aucubin (244 μg/ml) exhibited a strong fungicidal activity at its highest concentration against C. albicans growth. The MBIC indicated no growth or reduced growth of C. albicans biofilm at the highest concentrations of aucubin (61 to 244 μg/ml) and baicalein (25 to 100 μg/ml). Similarly, the effects of these reagents on C. albicans biofilm metabolic activity and hydrophobicity demonstrated high effectiveness at their highest concentrations. Conclusion: P. major extract, aucubin, and baicalein caused a dose-dependent reduction on the total growth, biofilm formation, metabolic activity, and cell surface hydrophobicity of C. albicans. This demonstrates their effectiveness as antifungals and suggests their promising potential use as solutions for C. albicans biofilm-related infections.

AB - Purpose: To determine the in vitro effectiveness of Plantago major extract, along with two of its active components, aucubin and baicalein, on the inhibition of Candida albicans growth, biofilm formation, metabolic activity, and cell surface hydrophobicity. Materials and Methods: Twofold dilutions of P. major, aucubin, and baicalein were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC), and the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) of each solution. Separately, twofold dilutions of P. major, aucubin, and baicalein were used to determine the metabolic activity of established C. albicans biofilm using a 2,3-bis (2- methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-carboxanilide reduction assay. Twofold dilutions of P. major, aucubin, and baicalein were used to determine the cell surface hydrophobicity of treated C. albicans biofilm by a two-phase assay using hexadecane. The hydrophobicity percentage of the cell surface was then calculated. A mixed-model ANOVA test was used for intergroup comparisons. Results: The MICs of P. major extract (diluted 1:2 to 1:8), aucubin (61 to 244 μg/ml), and baicalein (0.0063 to 100 μg/ml) on the total growth of C. albicans were noticeable at their highest concentrations, and the inhibition was dose dependent. The MFC was evaluated after 48 hours of incubation, and aucubin (244 μg/ml) exhibited a strong fungicidal activity at its highest concentration against C. albicans growth. The MBIC indicated no growth or reduced growth of C. albicans biofilm at the highest concentrations of aucubin (61 to 244 μg/ml) and baicalein (25 to 100 μg/ml). Similarly, the effects of these reagents on C. albicans biofilm metabolic activity and hydrophobicity demonstrated high effectiveness at their highest concentrations. Conclusion: P. major extract, aucubin, and baicalein caused a dose-dependent reduction on the total growth, biofilm formation, metabolic activity, and cell surface hydrophobicity of C. albicans. This demonstrates their effectiveness as antifungals and suggests their promising potential use as solutions for C. albicans biofilm-related infections.

KW - Antifungal

KW - Biofilm

KW - Candidiasis

KW - Crystal violet

KW - Denture stomatitis

KW - Hexadecane

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U2 - 10.1111/jopr.12411

DO - 10.1111/jopr.12411

M3 - Article

C2 - 26618515

AN - SCOPUS:84949883923

JO - Journal of Prosthodontics

JF - Journal of Prosthodontics

SN - 1059-941X

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