Incidence and risk factors for cognitive impairment no dementia and mild cognitive impairment in African Americans

Frederick W. Unverzagt, Adesola Ogunniyi, Vanessa Taler, Sujuan Gao, Kathleen A. Lane, Olusegun Baiyewu, Oye Gureje, Valerie Smith-Gamble, Ann Hake, Hugh C. Hendrie, Kathleen S. Hall

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

27 Scopus citations


The aim of this study was to estimate the age-specific incidence of cognitive impairment, no dementia and mild cognitive impairment (CIND/MCI) in a large, community-based sample of older African Americans in Indianapolis, IN. A longitudinal, prospective, 2-stage design was used with follow-up assessments 2 and 5 years after the baseline. A total of 1668 participants completed the 2-year follow-up and a total of 1255 participants completed the 5-year follow-up. The person-years method was used to calculate incidence rates. The age-standardized, annual incidence of CIND/MCI was 4.95% (CI=3.39-6.52) and the subtype of medically unexplained memory loss (single-domain and multidomain amnestic MCI) was 3.67% (CI 2.75-4.48). Rates increased with age (3.43% for participants aged 65 to 74 y, 6.44% from age 75 to 84 y, and 9.62% from age 85+ y), history of head injury [OR 2.37 (CI 1.31-4.29)], and history of depression [OR 2.22 (CI 1.16-4.25)] while increased years of schooling was protective [OR 0.91 (CI 0.85-0.97)]. Rates did not vary substantially by sex. Almost 1 in 20 elderly community-dwelling African Americans, and almost 1 in 10 of the oldest-old (85+ y) developed CIND/MCI each year in this cohort. Risk factors of age and education suggest exposures or mechanisms at both ends of the life span may be important variables in onset of CIND/MCI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4-10
Number of pages7
JournalAlzheimer disease and associated disorders
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2011


  • epidemiology
  • incidence
  • mild cognitive impairment
  • risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Gerontology
  • Clinical Psychology

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