Incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment, not dementia in the united states

Brenda L. Plassman, Kenneth M. Langa, Ryan J. McCammon, Gwenith G. Fisher, Guy G. Potter, James R. Burke, David C. Steffens, Norman L. Foster, Bruno Giordani, Frederick Unverzagt, Kathleen A. Welsh-Bohmer, Steven G. Heeringa, David R. Weir, Robert B. Wallace

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

108 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: Estimates of incident dementia, and cognitive impairment, not dementia (CIND) (or the related mild cognitive impairment) are important for public health and clinical care policy. In this paper, we report US national incidence rates for dementia and CIND. Methods: Participants in the Aging, Demographic, and Memory Study (ADAMS) were evaluated for cognitive impairment using a comprehensive in-home assessment. A total of 456 individuals aged 72 years and older, who were not demented at baseline, were followed longitudinally from August 2001 to December 2009. An expert consensus panel assigned a diagnosis of normal cognition, CIND, or dementia and its subtypes. Using a population-weighted sample, we estimated the incidence of dementia, Alzheimer disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), and CIND by age. We also estimated the incidence of progression from CIND to dementia. Results: The incidence of dementia was 33.3 (standard error [SE], 4.2) per 1,000 person-years and 22.9 (SE, 2.9) per 1,000 person-years for AD. The incidence of CIND was 60.4 (SE, 7.2) cases per 1,000 person-years. An estimated 120.3 (SE, 16.9) individuals per 1,000 person-years progressed from CIND to dementia. Over a 5.9-year period, about 3.4 million individuals aged 72 and older in the United States developed incident dementia, of whom approximately 2.3 million developed AD, and about 637,000 developed VaD. Over this same period, almost 4.8 million individuals developed incident CIND. Interpretation: The incidence of CIND is greater than the incidence of dementia, and those with CIND are at high risk of progressing to dementia, making CIND a potentially valuable target for treatments aimed at slowing cognitive decline.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)418-426
Number of pages9
JournalAnnals of Neurology
Volume70
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2011

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Dementia
Incidence
Cognitive Dysfunction
Alzheimer Disease
Vascular Dementia
Population Dynamics
Cognition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology

Cite this

Plassman, B. L., Langa, K. M., McCammon, R. J., Fisher, G. G., Potter, G. G., Burke, J. R., ... Wallace, R. B. (2011). Incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment, not dementia in the united states. Annals of Neurology, 70(3), 418-426. https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.22362

Incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment, not dementia in the united states. / Plassman, Brenda L.; Langa, Kenneth M.; McCammon, Ryan J.; Fisher, Gwenith G.; Potter, Guy G.; Burke, James R.; Steffens, David C.; Foster, Norman L.; Giordani, Bruno; Unverzagt, Frederick; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A.; Heeringa, Steven G.; Weir, David R.; Wallace, Robert B.

In: Annals of Neurology, Vol. 70, No. 3, 09.2011, p. 418-426.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Plassman, BL, Langa, KM, McCammon, RJ, Fisher, GG, Potter, GG, Burke, JR, Steffens, DC, Foster, NL, Giordani, B, Unverzagt, F, Welsh-Bohmer, KA, Heeringa, SG, Weir, DR & Wallace, RB 2011, 'Incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment, not dementia in the united states', Annals of Neurology, vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 418-426. https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.22362
Plassman BL, Langa KM, McCammon RJ, Fisher GG, Potter GG, Burke JR et al. Incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment, not dementia in the united states. Annals of Neurology. 2011 Sep;70(3):418-426. https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.22362
Plassman, Brenda L. ; Langa, Kenneth M. ; McCammon, Ryan J. ; Fisher, Gwenith G. ; Potter, Guy G. ; Burke, James R. ; Steffens, David C. ; Foster, Norman L. ; Giordani, Bruno ; Unverzagt, Frederick ; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A. ; Heeringa, Steven G. ; Weir, David R. ; Wallace, Robert B. / Incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment, not dementia in the united states. In: Annals of Neurology. 2011 ; Vol. 70, No. 3. pp. 418-426.
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abstract = "Objective: Estimates of incident dementia, and cognitive impairment, not dementia (CIND) (or the related mild cognitive impairment) are important for public health and clinical care policy. In this paper, we report US national incidence rates for dementia and CIND. Methods: Participants in the Aging, Demographic, and Memory Study (ADAMS) were evaluated for cognitive impairment using a comprehensive in-home assessment. A total of 456 individuals aged 72 years and older, who were not demented at baseline, were followed longitudinally from August 2001 to December 2009. An expert consensus panel assigned a diagnosis of normal cognition, CIND, or dementia and its subtypes. Using a population-weighted sample, we estimated the incidence of dementia, Alzheimer disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), and CIND by age. We also estimated the incidence of progression from CIND to dementia. Results: The incidence of dementia was 33.3 (standard error [SE], 4.2) per 1,000 person-years and 22.9 (SE, 2.9) per 1,000 person-years for AD. The incidence of CIND was 60.4 (SE, 7.2) cases per 1,000 person-years. An estimated 120.3 (SE, 16.9) individuals per 1,000 person-years progressed from CIND to dementia. Over a 5.9-year period, about 3.4 million individuals aged 72 and older in the United States developed incident dementia, of whom approximately 2.3 million developed AD, and about 637,000 developed VaD. Over this same period, almost 4.8 million individuals developed incident CIND. Interpretation: The incidence of CIND is greater than the incidence of dementia, and those with CIND are at high risk of progressing to dementia, making CIND a potentially valuable target for treatments aimed at slowing cognitive decline.",
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