Insomnia symptoms and behavioural health symptoms in veterans 1 year after traumatic brain injury

Leah Farrell-Carnahan, Scott Barnett, Gregory Lamberty, Flora Hammond, Tracy S. Kretzmer, Laura M. Franke, Meghan Geiss, Laura Howe, Risa Nakase-Richardson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Scopus citations


Objective: Insomnia and behavioural health symptoms 1 year after traumatic brain injury (TBI) were examined in a clinical sample representative of veterans who received inpatient treatment for TBI-related issues within the Veterans Health Administration.Methods: This was a cross-sectional sub-study (n = 112) of the Polytrauma Rehabilitation Centres traumatic brain injury model system programme. Prevalence estimates of insomnia, depression, general anxiety, nightmares, headache and substance use, stratified by injury severity, were derived. Univariate logistic regression was used to examine unadjusted effects for each behavioural health problem and insomnia by injury severity.Results: Participants were primarily male, <30 years old and high school educated. Twenty-nine per cent met study criteria for insomnia; those with mild TBI were significantly more likely to meet criteria (43%) than those with moderate/severe TBI (22%), χ2(1, n = 112) = 5.088, p ≤ 0.05. Univariable logistic regression analyses revealeddepressive symptoms and general anxiety were significantly associated with insomnia symptoms after TBI of any severity. Headache and binge drinking were significantly inversely related to insomnia symptoms after moderate/severe TBI, but not MTBI.Conclusions: Veterans with history of TBI, of any severity, and current insomnia symptoms may be at increased risk for depression and anxiety 1 year after TBI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1400-1408
Number of pages9
JournalBrain Injury
Issue number12
StatePublished - Oct 15 2015



  • Anxiety
  • depression
  • headache
  • insomnia
  • substance use
  • TBI
  • traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

Cite this

Farrell-Carnahan, L., Barnett, S., Lamberty, G., Hammond, F., Kretzmer, T. S., Franke, L. M., Geiss, M., Howe, L., & Nakase-Richardson, R. (2015). Insomnia symptoms and behavioural health symptoms in veterans 1 year after traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 29(12), 1400-1408.