Is the preconditioning threshold different in females?

Jeffrey M. Pitcher, Ryan D. Nagy, Ben M. Tsai, Meijing Wang, Ajay Kher, Daniel R. Meldrum

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Scopus citations


Background. Preconditioning is injury induced protection against subsequent insult. Studies have shown that both males and females may be preconditioned. Females appear to have an innate cardioprotection, therefore, we hypothesized that the preconditioning threshold may differ between males and females. Materials and methods. Male and female rats were divided into five groups (n = 4-9). Animals were given an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 125, 250, or 500 micrograms/kilogram Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (ETX) or 0.4-ml normal saline (NS). After 24-h incubation another i.p. injection of either 500 micrograms/kilogram ETX (injury dose) or NS was given and the animals incubated an additional 6 h. Shams received two injections of NS. Non-preconditioned rats (PC-) received NS followed by ETX. Preconditioned rats had i.p. injections of 125 μg/kg ETX (PC +125), 250 μg/kg ETX (PC +250), or 500 μg/kg ETX (PC +500) followed by the injury dose ETX. The rats were then anesthetized and myocardial function evaluated with the Langendorff perfusion model. Results. PC +500 females were preconditioned and were able to maintain cardiac function similar to shams. Conversely, PC +125 females were not preconditioned with this stimulus and had a significant decrease in cardiac function similar to PC- rats. Male PC +500 and PC +125 rats, however, retained cardiac function comparable to shams, while PC- males showed a significant decrement. Conclusions. Males and females may each be preconditioned by endotoxin; however, the preconditioning threshold is higher in females than males.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)168-172
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Surgical Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 15 2005


  • Endotoxin
  • Gender
  • Heart function
  • Ischemia
  • Tolerance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

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    Pitcher, J. M., Nagy, R. D., Tsai, B. M., Wang, M., Kher, A., & Meldrum, D. R. (2005). Is the preconditioning threshold different in females? Journal of Surgical Research, 125(2), 168-172.