The global burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing with a projection of becoming the fifth leading cause of years of life lost globally by 2040. CKD is a major cause of catastrophic health expenditure. The costs of dialysis and transplantation consume up to 3% of the entire annual healthcare budget in high-income countries. Crucially, however, both the onset and progression of CKD is potentially preventable. In 2020, the World Kidney Day campaign highlights the importance of preventive interventions—be it primary, i.e. to prevent de novo CKD, or secondary or tertiary, i.e. prevention of worsening early CKD or progression of more advanced CKD to end-stage kidney disease, respectively. Primary prevention should focus on the modification of CKD risk factors and address the structural abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tracts, and exposure to environmental risk factors and nephrotoxins. In persons with pre-existing kidney disease, secondary prevention, including blood pressure optimization, glycemic control and avoiding high-protein high-sodium diet should be the main goal of education and clinical interventions. In patients with moderate to advanced CKD, the management of comorbidities such as uremia and cardiovascular disease along with low-protein diet are among the recommended preventative interventions to avoid or delay dialysis or kidney transplantation. Whereas national policies and strategies for noncommunicable diseases may exist in a country, specific policies directed toward education and awareness about CKD screening, prevention and treatment are often lacking. There is an urgent need to increase awareness for preventive measures throughout populations, professionals and policy makers.
- Kidney diseases
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Advanced and Specialized Nursing