Lack of effect of long-term fluoride ingestion on blood chemistry and frequency of sister chromatid exchange in human lymphocytes

Richard D. Jackson, Sue A. Kelly, Timothy W. Noblitt, Wu Zhang, Marie E. Wilson, Ann J. Dunipace, Yiming Li, Barry P. Katz, Edward J. Brizendine, George K. Stookey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Scopus citations


Two studies were conducted to assess the potential for adverse physiologic and genotoxic effects of long-term fluoride ingestion in adults residing in three communities with varying water fluoride levels (0.2 ppm, 1.0 ppm, and 4.0 ppm). All were long-time (≤30 years) residents of their respective communities. Plasma and urine samples were collected for fluoride analyses. Additional plasma was collected to determine blood chemistry, and plasma lymphocytes were examined to determine the frequency of sister chromatid exchange. Significant differences in urine (P = 0.001) and plasma (P = 0.0001) fluoride levels were found in the three communities. Seven of the blood parameters were statistically different among the communities, although all were within the defined normal range of the pathology laboratory. Sister chromatid exchange frequency was statistically higher in the 4.0 ppm fluoride community as compared to the other communities. Because of the higher SCE Frequency in the 4.0 ppm fluoride community, a second study was performed to determine if the increased frequency was potentially related to the fluoride level of the communal water supply. Of the 58 adults recruited; 30 had used city water and 28 had used well water (≤0.3 ppm fluoride) as their principal water source for 30 years. Data analyses showed that the sister chromatid exchange frequency did not differ between the groups, indicating that the increased sister chromatid exchange frequency was not related to the fluoride level of the communal water. The investigation provided evidence that the long-term ingestion of water containing 4.0 ppm Fluoride did not have any clinically important physiologic or genotoxic effects in healthy adults.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)265-271
Number of pages7
JournalEnvironmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1997


  • Fluoride
  • Genotoxicity
  • Physiology
  • Sister chromatid exchange

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)
  • Toxicology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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