Learning disorders

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

27 Scopus citations


Three broad areas of LDs are recognized in the DSM-IV (RD, mathematics disorder, and disorder of written expression), and many atypical LDs (such as NVLD) also may be found in children with academic underachievement. These disorders are defined by a significant discrepancy between a child's intellectual (learning) ability and specific area of academic achievement, based on individual psychologic testing. Interventions for these disorders begin with careful evaluation and testing, followed by meetings at the school and development of an IEP. The recommendations of the IEP are performed in the school setting, whereas additional interventions may be sought at private learning clinics. Specific treatments for RD have been well defined, whereas those for other LDs must be tailored to match the strengths and weaknesses of the child. Although it is rare for individuals to completely outgrow the academic weaknesses characteristic of an LD, their performance in the area of weakness often can be improved markedly with appropriate interventions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)941-952
Number of pages12
JournalNeurologic clinics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Nov 1 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Learning disorders'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this