Locus of control and biofeedback: a review of the literature.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

10 Scopus citations


This paper first reviews studies which have investigated the efficacy of using locus of control orientation to predict performance in various modes of biofeedback. However, contradictory evidence and methodological problems make it impossible to draw any conclusions regarding the connection between internality-externality and biofeedback performance. Second, various attempts to modify externality through biofeedback treatment are reviewed. Although EMG feedback can apparently be used to shift locus of control in an internal direction, there are some major issues that need to be resolved. Of primary importance is the fact that the rationale for modifying externality is based on an unproven assumption that externality has a role in the causation of various undesirable behaviors. Also, as no follow-up testing has been done, there is no evidence that the EMG biofeedback causes relatively permanent, stable locus of control changes. If the shifts are only temporary, then its use as a modifier of externality is questionable.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)871-877
Number of pages7
JournalPerceptual and motor skills
Issue number3
StatePublished - Dec 1979
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Sensory Systems

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