GOALS: We investigated the long-term efficacy and safety of fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) for the treatment of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI). BACKGROUND: FMT has emerged as a promising therapy for patients with rCDI unresponsive to standard medical therapy, though long-term efficacy and safety data are scarce. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multicenter retrospective study was performed on patients treated with FMT for rCDI with ≥6 months of clinical follow-up post-FMT. Patients were contacted to document sustained efficacy, potential adverse events, and antibiotic exposure. The electronic medical record was reviewed to confirm patient-reported outcomes and obtain additional data. The primary outcome was sustained cure, as defined by the absence of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) at any timepoint after FMT. RESULTS: Of 528 patients treated, 207 were successfully contacted. The mean follow-up post-FMT was 34 (range: 6 to 84) months. One hundred fifty-seven patients (75.8%) reported sustained cure at the time of follow-up. One hundred patients (48%) reported the use of antibiotics for non-CDI indications post-FMT, of whom 11 (11%) had experienced CDI post-FMT. Fifty-two of the original 528 patients (9.8%) treated with FMT had died at the time of follow-up contact; none were felt attributable to the procedure. New medical conditions or diagnoses post-FMT were reported in 105 patients (50.5%). Fifteen reported improvement post-FMT in previously diagnosed medical conditions. CONCLUSIONS: In this largest and longest study to date on efficacy and safety after FMT for treatment of rCDI, we found that the majority of patients experienced long-term cure. Although a number of new conditions developed post-FMT, there was no clustering of diseases associated with dysbiosis.
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