Objective: To compare the long-term efficacy of intraoperative 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and mitomycin C (MMC) in primary trabeculectomy. Design: Comparative case series and extension of a prospective, randomized controlled trial. Participants: One hundred fifteen eyes of 103 subjects undergoing primary trabeculectomy with either intraoperative 5-FU or MMC. Methods: This study is an extension of a 12-month, prospective, double-masked, randomized trial that previously was reported. Subjects were randomized to receive either intraoperative 5-FU (50 mg/ml for 5 minutes) or MMC (0.2 mg/ml for 2 minutes) during primary trabeculectomy. Follow-up data were collected from patient medical records after informed consent was obtained from the study patient. Attempts were made to contact subjects who had been lost to follow-up, and some consented to reexamination. Main Outcome Measures: The primary measure was Kaplan-Meier survival function, with failure defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) of more than 21 mmHg or less than 6 mmHg on 2 consecutive visits, less than 20% reduction from baseline IOP, loss of light perception vision, or additional glaucoma surgery to lower IOP (except bleb revision). Secondary measures included IOP, number of glaucoma medications, visual acuity, additional surgeries, and number and type of complications. Results: Mean follow up was 53.4±31.4 months (interquartile range, 34-82 months) in the 5-FU group and 45.3±28.0 months (interquartile range, 19-70 months) in the MMC group (P = 0.15, t test). Kaplan-Meier success was 0.83 at 3 years and 0.76 at 5 years in the 5-FU group and 0.79 at 3 years and 0.66 at 5 years in the MMC group (P = 0.18, log-rank test). Bleb leakage was the most common complication in each group and developed in approximately 4% of subjects in each group per year (P = 0.33, log-rank test). Conclusions: There were no significant differences between topical 5-FU and topical MMC in reducing IOP of eyes undergoing primary trabeculectomy. Both antifibrosis agents may contribute to the development of bleb leakage. Financial Disclosure(s): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.
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