Longitudinal development of refractive error in children with accommodative esotropia: Onset, amblyopia, and anisometropia

Jingyun Wang, Sarah E. Morale, Xiaowei Ren, Eileen E. Birch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Scopus citations


PURPOSE. We investigated longitudinal changes of refractive error in children with accommodative esotropia (ET) throughout the first 12 years of life, its dependence on age at onset of ET, and whether amblyopia or anisometropia are associated with defective emmetropization. METHODS. Longitudinal refractive errors in children with accommodative ET were analyzed retrospectively. Eligibility criteria included: initial hyperopia ≥4.00 diopters (D), initial cycloplegic refraction before 4 years, at least 3 visits, and at least one visit between 7 and 12 years. Children were classified as having infantile (N = 30; onset ≤12 months) or late-onset (N = 78; onset at 18-48 months) accommodative ET. Cycloplegic refractions culled from medical records were converted into spherical equivalent (SEQ). RESULTS. Although the initial visit right eye SEQ was similar for the infantile and late-onset groups (+5.86 ± 1.28 and +5.67 ± 1.26 D, respectively), there were different developmental changes in refractive error. Neither group had a significant decrease in hyperopia before age 7 years, but after 7 years, the infantile group experienced a myopic shift of -0.43 D/y. The late-onset group did not experience a myopic shift at 7 to 12 years. Among amblyopic children, a slower myopic shift was observed for the amblyopic eye. Among anisometropic children, the more hyperopic eye experienced more myopic shift than the less hyperopic eye. CONCLUSIONS. Children with infantile accommodative ET experienced prolonged hyperopia followed by a myopic shift after 7 years of age, consistent with dissociation between infantile emmetropization and school age myopic shift. In contrast, children with late-onset accommodative ET had little myopic shift before or after 7 years.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2203-2212
Number of pages10
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2016


  • Accommodative esotropia
  • Amblyopia
  • Development
  • Ocular
  • Refractive error

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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