Lyme Disease

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Lyme disease is caused by a spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. The hallmark of acute localized Lyme disease is erythema migrans, which is a slowly expanding erythematous lesion that may have a partial central clearing. The most common form of neurological Lyme disease is headache with neck stiffness, low-grade fever, and a unilateral or bilateral (in 25% of cases) facial nerve palsy. The serodiagnosis of Lyme disease is a two-step process. The screening serological test for Lyme disease is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or an indirect fluorescent antibody test. A positive ELISA is confirmed with a Western immunoblot. The classic cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities in nervous system Lyme disease are lymphocytic pleocytosis, increased protein concentration, normal glucose concentration, elevated immunoglobulin G (IgG) index, and oligoclonal bands. Definitive diagnosis requires demonstration of intrathecal anti-. B. burgdorferi antibody production. The majority of patients with headache, low-grade fever, and facial nerve palsy can be treated with oral doxycycline.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages1
ISBN (Electronic)9780123851574
ISBN (Print)9780123851581
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014


  • Borrelia burgdorferi
  • Facial nerve palsy
  • Lyme disease
  • Meningitis
  • Painful radiculitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Lyme Disease'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this

    Roos, K. (2014). Lyme Disease. In Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences (pp. 941). Elsevier Inc..