Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is being used to treat autoimmune diseases refractory to conventional therapy, including rheumatoid arthritis. Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a descriptive term for a systemic inflammatory disorder that has been described in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). This case report describes a young adult with systemic JRA (sJRA) who developed MAS on day # 12 post-autologous transplantation. The patient developed high fever, laboratory evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), hepatocellular injury, pancytopenia and hyper-ferritinemia. All viral, bacterial and fungal studies were negative and the patient improved with high-dose glucorticosteroid and cyclosporine therapy. Extreme elevation of serum ferritin was documented and helpful in monitoring response to therapy. A number of systemic inflammatory syndromes have been described in association with HCT. These include DIC, 'engraftment syndrome,' infection-associated hemophagocytic syndrome and familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Macrophage activation syndrome presents with features of DIC and is closely related or identical to infection-associated hemophagocytic syndrome. The diagnosis needs to be established in a timely fashion because early and appropriate treatment may improve outcome.
- Engraftment syndrome
- Macrophage activation syndrome
- Stem cell transplantation
ASJC Scopus subject areas