Flavocytochrome b558, the catalytic core of the phagocytic NADPH oxidase, mediates the transfer of electrons from NADPH to molecular oxygen to generate superoxide for host defense. Flavocytochrome b is a membrane heterodimer consisting of a large subunit gp91phox (NOX2) and a smaller subunit, p22phox. Although in neutrophils flavocytochrome b has been shown to localize to the plasma membrane and specific granules, little is known about its distribution in macrophages. Using immunofluorescent staining and live cell imaging of fluorescently tagged gp91phox and p22 phox, we demonstrate in a Chinese hamster ovary cell model system and in RAW 264.7 and primary murine bone marrow-derived macrophages that flavocytochrome b is found in the Rab11-positive recycling endocytic compartment, as well as in Rab5-positive early endosomes and plasma membrane. Additionally, we show that unassembled p22phox and gp91 phox subunits localize to the endoplasmic reticulum, which redistribute to the cell surface and endosomal compartments following heterodimer formation. These studies show for the first time that flavocytochrome b localizes to intracellular compartments in macrophages that recycle to the plasma membrane, which may act as a reservoir to deliver flavocytochrome b to the cell surface and phagosome membranes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy