Mammalian peptidoglycan recognition proteins kill bacteria by activating two-component systems and modulate microbiome and inflammation

Roman Dziarski, Des Raj Kashyap, Dipika Gupta

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

21 Scopus citations

Abstract

Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are conserved from insects to mammals and function in antibacterial immunity. We have revealed a novel mechanism of bacterial killing by innate immune system, in which mammalian PGRPs bind to bacterial cell wall or outer membrane and exploit bacterial stress defense response to kill bacteria. PGRPs enter Gram-positive cell wall at the site of daughter cell separation during cell division. In Bacillus subtilis PGRPs activate the CssR-CssS two-component system that detects and disposes of misfolded proteins exported out of bacterial cells. This activation results in membrane depolarization, production of hydroxyl radicals, and cessation of intracellular peptidoglycan, protein, RNA, and DNA synthesis, which are responsible for bacterial death. PGRPs also bind to the outer membrane in Escherichia coli and activate functionally homologous CpxA-CpxR two-component system, which also results in bacterial death. We excluded other potential bactericidal mechanisms, such as inhibition of extracellular peptidoglycan synthesis, hydrolysis of peptidoglycan, and membrane permeabilization. In vivo, mammalian PGRPs are expressed in polymorphonuclear leukocytes, skin, salivary glands, oral cavity, intestinal tract, eyes, and liver. They control acquisition and maintenance of beneficial normal gut microflora, which protects the host from enhanced inflammation, tissue damage, and colitis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)280-285
Number of pages6
JournalMicrobial Drug Resistance
Volume18
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology
  • Microbiology (medical)

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