Mammalian peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) in innate immunity

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Abstract

Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs or PGLYRPs) are innate immunity proteins that are conserved from insects to mammals, recognize bacterial peptidoglycan, and function in antibacterial immunity and inflammation. Mammals have four PGRPs - PGLYRP1, PGLYRP2, PGLYRP3, and PGLYRP4. They are secreted proteins expressed in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PGLYRP1), liver (PGLYRP2), or on body surfaces, mucous membranes, and in secretions (saliva, sweat) (PGLYRP3 and PGLYRP4). All PGRPs recognize bacterial peptidoglycan. Three PGRPs, PGLYRP1, PGLYRP3, and PGLYRP4 are directly bactericidal for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and have no enzymatic activity, whereas PGLYRP2 is an N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase that hydrolyzes bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins influence host- pathogen interactions not only through their antibacterial or peptidoglycan-hydrolytic properties, but also through their pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory properties that are independent of their hydrolytic and antibacterial activities. The PGRPs likely play a role both in antibacterial defenses and several inflammatory diseases. They modulate local inflammatory responses in tissues (such as arthritic joints) and there is evidence for association of PGRPs with inflammatory diseases, such as psoriasis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)168-174
Number of pages7
JournalInnate Immunity
Volume16
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2010

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Keywords

  • Bacteria
  • Inflammation
  • Innate immunity
  • Pattern recognition
  • Peptidoglycan

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cell Biology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Immunology
  • Microbiology
  • Infectious Diseases

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