Management of branch-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms: a large single-center study to assess predictors of malignancy and long-term outcomes

Wiriyaporn Ridtitid, John DeWitt, C. Schmidt, Alexandra Roch, Jennifer Schaffter Stuart, Stuart Sherman, Mohammad A. Al-Haddad

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Abstract

Background and Aims Management of branch-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (BD-IPMNs) remains challenging. We determined factors associated with malignancy in BD-IPMNs and long-term outcomes. Methods This retrospective cohort study included all patients with established BD-IPMNs by the International Consensus Guidelines (ICG) 2012 and/or pathologically confirmed BD-IPMNs in a tertiary care referral center between 2001 and 2013. Main outcome measures were the association between high-risk stigmata (HRS)/worrisome features (WFs) of the ICG 2012 and malignant BD-IPMNs, performance characteristics of EUS-FNA for the diagnosis of malignant BD-IPMNs, and recurrence and long-term outcomes of BD-IPMN patients undergoing surgery or imaging surveillance. Results Of 364 BD-IPMN patients, 229 underwent imaging surveillance and 135 underwent surgery. Among the 135 resected BD-IPMNs, HRS/WFs on CT/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were similar between the benign and malignant groups, but main pancreatic duct (MPD) dilation (5-9 mm) was more frequently identified in malignant lesions. On EUS-FNA, mural nodules, MPD features suspicious for involvement, and suspicious/positive malignant cytology were more frequently detected in the malignant group with a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 33%, 94%, and 86%; 42%, 91%, and 83%; and 33% 91%, and 82%, respectively. Mural nodules identified by EUS were missed by CT/MRI in 28% in the malignant group. Patients with malignant lesions had a higher risk of any IPMN recurrence during a mean follow-up period of 131 months (P = .01). Conclusions Among HRS and WFs of the ICG 2012, an MPD size of 5 to 9 mm on CT/MRI was associated with malignant BD-IPMNs. EUS features including mural nodules, MPD features suspicious for involvement, and suspicious/malignant cytology were accurate and highly specific for malignant BD-IPMNs. Our study highlights the incremental value of EUS-FNA over imaging in identifying malignant BD-IPMNs, particularly in patients without WFs and those with smaller cysts. Benign IPMN recurrence was observed in some patients up to 8 years after resection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)436-445
Number of pages10
JournalGastrointestinal Endoscopy
Volume84
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2016

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Neoplasms
Pancreatic Ducts
Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration
Christianity
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Guidelines
Tertiary Care Centers
Recurrence
Cell Biology
Cysts
Dilatation
Cohort Studies
Retrospective Studies
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Sensitivity and Specificity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Gastroenterology

Cite this

Management of branch-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms : a large single-center study to assess predictors of malignancy and long-term outcomes. / Ridtitid, Wiriyaporn; DeWitt, John; Schmidt, C.; Roch, Alexandra; Stuart, Jennifer Schaffter; Sherman, Stuart; Al-Haddad, Mohammad A.

In: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, Vol. 84, No. 3, 01.09.2016, p. 436-445.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Management of branch-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms: a large single-center study to assess predictors of malignancy and long-term outcomes",
abstract = "Background and Aims Management of branch-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (BD-IPMNs) remains challenging. We determined factors associated with malignancy in BD-IPMNs and long-term outcomes. Methods This retrospective cohort study included all patients with established BD-IPMNs by the International Consensus Guidelines (ICG) 2012 and/or pathologically confirmed BD-IPMNs in a tertiary care referral center between 2001 and 2013. Main outcome measures were the association between high-risk stigmata (HRS)/worrisome features (WFs) of the ICG 2012 and malignant BD-IPMNs, performance characteristics of EUS-FNA for the diagnosis of malignant BD-IPMNs, and recurrence and long-term outcomes of BD-IPMN patients undergoing surgery or imaging surveillance. Results Of 364 BD-IPMN patients, 229 underwent imaging surveillance and 135 underwent surgery. Among the 135 resected BD-IPMNs, HRS/WFs on CT/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were similar between the benign and malignant groups, but main pancreatic duct (MPD) dilation (5-9 mm) was more frequently identified in malignant lesions. On EUS-FNA, mural nodules, MPD features suspicious for involvement, and suspicious/positive malignant cytology were more frequently detected in the malignant group with a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 33{\%}, 94{\%}, and 86{\%}; 42{\%}, 91{\%}, and 83{\%}; and 33{\%} 91{\%}, and 82{\%}, respectively. Mural nodules identified by EUS were missed by CT/MRI in 28{\%} in the malignant group. Patients with malignant lesions had a higher risk of any IPMN recurrence during a mean follow-up period of 131 months (P = .01). Conclusions Among HRS and WFs of the ICG 2012, an MPD size of 5 to 9 mm on CT/MRI was associated with malignant BD-IPMNs. EUS features including mural nodules, MPD features suspicious for involvement, and suspicious/malignant cytology were accurate and highly specific for malignant BD-IPMNs. Our study highlights the incremental value of EUS-FNA over imaging in identifying malignant BD-IPMNs, particularly in patients without WFs and those with smaller cysts. Benign IPMN recurrence was observed in some patients up to 8 years after resection.",
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AU - DeWitt, John

AU - Schmidt, C.

AU - Roch, Alexandra

AU - Stuart, Jennifer Schaffter

AU - Sherman, Stuart

AU - Al-Haddad, Mohammad A.

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N2 - Background and Aims Management of branch-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (BD-IPMNs) remains challenging. We determined factors associated with malignancy in BD-IPMNs and long-term outcomes. Methods This retrospective cohort study included all patients with established BD-IPMNs by the International Consensus Guidelines (ICG) 2012 and/or pathologically confirmed BD-IPMNs in a tertiary care referral center between 2001 and 2013. Main outcome measures were the association between high-risk stigmata (HRS)/worrisome features (WFs) of the ICG 2012 and malignant BD-IPMNs, performance characteristics of EUS-FNA for the diagnosis of malignant BD-IPMNs, and recurrence and long-term outcomes of BD-IPMN patients undergoing surgery or imaging surveillance. Results Of 364 BD-IPMN patients, 229 underwent imaging surveillance and 135 underwent surgery. Among the 135 resected BD-IPMNs, HRS/WFs on CT/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were similar between the benign and malignant groups, but main pancreatic duct (MPD) dilation (5-9 mm) was more frequently identified in malignant lesions. On EUS-FNA, mural nodules, MPD features suspicious for involvement, and suspicious/positive malignant cytology were more frequently detected in the malignant group with a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 33%, 94%, and 86%; 42%, 91%, and 83%; and 33% 91%, and 82%, respectively. Mural nodules identified by EUS were missed by CT/MRI in 28% in the malignant group. Patients with malignant lesions had a higher risk of any IPMN recurrence during a mean follow-up period of 131 months (P = .01). Conclusions Among HRS and WFs of the ICG 2012, an MPD size of 5 to 9 mm on CT/MRI was associated with malignant BD-IPMNs. EUS features including mural nodules, MPD features suspicious for involvement, and suspicious/malignant cytology were accurate and highly specific for malignant BD-IPMNs. Our study highlights the incremental value of EUS-FNA over imaging in identifying malignant BD-IPMNs, particularly in patients without WFs and those with smaller cysts. Benign IPMN recurrence was observed in some patients up to 8 years after resection.

AB - Background and Aims Management of branch-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (BD-IPMNs) remains challenging. We determined factors associated with malignancy in BD-IPMNs and long-term outcomes. Methods This retrospective cohort study included all patients with established BD-IPMNs by the International Consensus Guidelines (ICG) 2012 and/or pathologically confirmed BD-IPMNs in a tertiary care referral center between 2001 and 2013. Main outcome measures were the association between high-risk stigmata (HRS)/worrisome features (WFs) of the ICG 2012 and malignant BD-IPMNs, performance characteristics of EUS-FNA for the diagnosis of malignant BD-IPMNs, and recurrence and long-term outcomes of BD-IPMN patients undergoing surgery or imaging surveillance. Results Of 364 BD-IPMN patients, 229 underwent imaging surveillance and 135 underwent surgery. Among the 135 resected BD-IPMNs, HRS/WFs on CT/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were similar between the benign and malignant groups, but main pancreatic duct (MPD) dilation (5-9 mm) was more frequently identified in malignant lesions. On EUS-FNA, mural nodules, MPD features suspicious for involvement, and suspicious/positive malignant cytology were more frequently detected in the malignant group with a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 33%, 94%, and 86%; 42%, 91%, and 83%; and 33% 91%, and 82%, respectively. Mural nodules identified by EUS were missed by CT/MRI in 28% in the malignant group. Patients with malignant lesions had a higher risk of any IPMN recurrence during a mean follow-up period of 131 months (P = .01). Conclusions Among HRS and WFs of the ICG 2012, an MPD size of 5 to 9 mm on CT/MRI was associated with malignant BD-IPMNs. EUS features including mural nodules, MPD features suspicious for involvement, and suspicious/malignant cytology were accurate and highly specific for malignant BD-IPMNs. Our study highlights the incremental value of EUS-FNA over imaging in identifying malignant BD-IPMNs, particularly in patients without WFs and those with smaller cysts. Benign IPMN recurrence was observed in some patients up to 8 years after resection.

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