Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common malignancy worldwide and the third leading cause of cancer-related death. Historically, HCC has been a problem mostly faced by patients from Asian countries due to the high prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV). Increasing global rates of HBV, hepatitis C, and obesity-related non-alcoholic steatohepatitis has caused a global increased incidence in HCC. Potentially curative therapies for HCC include liver resection, liver transplant, and radiofrequency ablation. More advanced HCC may be palliated with transarterial chemoembolization, transcatheter radioem-bolization, and sorafenib. Appropriate surveillance for those at risk and accurate clinical staging allows for earlier diagnosis and improved chance for cure. Hepatic resection remains the preferred primary therapy for HCC in the setting of relatively preserved liver function, while liver transplantation is the preferred curative therapy in the setting of small tumor burden with underlying liver disease. The application of locoregional therapies can also cure small lesions and maximize the utility of the limited donor pool by temporizing HCC and reserving livers for those who succumb to their underlying chronic liver disease.
- Hepatocellular carcinoma
- Liver resection
- Liver transplant
- Radiofrequency ablation
- Transarterial chemoembolization
- Transarterial radioembolization
ASJC Scopus subject areas