Maturation of the Oral Microbiome in Caries-Free Toddlers: A Longitudinal Study

D. Kahharova, B. W. Brandt, M. J. Buijs, M. Peters, R. Jackson, G. Eckert, B. Katz, M. A. Keels, S. M. Levy, M. Fontana, E. Zaura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Understanding the development of the oral microbiota in healthy children is of great importance to oral and general health. However, limited data exist on a healthy maturation of the oral microbial ecosystem in children. Moreover, the data are biased by mislabeling “caries-free” populations. Therefore, we aimed to characterize the healthy salivary and dental plaque microbiome in young children. Caries-free (ICDAS [International Caries Detection and Assessment System] score 0) children (n = 119) and their primary caregivers were followed from 1 until 4 y of child age. Salivary and dental plaque samples were collected from the children at 3 time points (T1, ~1 y old; T2, ~2.5 y old; and T3, ~4 y old). Only saliva samples were collected from the caregivers. Bacterial V4 16S ribosomal DNA amplicons were sequenced using Illumina MiSeq. The reads were denoised and mapped to the zero-radius operational taxonomic units (zOTUs). Taxonomy was assigned using HOMD. The microbial profiles of children showed significant differences (P = 0.0001) over time. Various taxa increased, including Fusobacterium, Actinomyces, and Corynebacterium, while others showed significant decreases (e.g., Alloprevotella and Capnocytophaga) in their relative abundances over time. Microbial diversity and child-caregiver similarity increased most between 1 and 2.5 y of age while still not reaching the complexity of the caregivers at 4 y of age. The microbiome at 1 y of age differed the most from those at later time points. A single zOTU (Streptococcus) was present in all samples (n = 925) of the study. A large variation in the proportion of shared zOTUs was observed within an individual child over time (2% to 42% of zOTUs in saliva; 2.5% to 38% in dental plaque). These findings indicate that the oral ecosystem of caries-free toddlers is highly heterogeneous and dynamic with substantial changes in microbial composition over time and only few taxa persisting across the 3 y of the study. The salivary microbiome of 4-y-old children is still distinct from that of their caregivers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of dental research
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2019

Fingerprint

Microbiota
Longitudinal Studies
Caregivers
Dental Plaque
Saliva
Ecosystem
Capnocytophaga
Fusobacterium
Actinomyces
Corynebacterium
Oral Health
Ribosomal DNA
Streptococcus

Keywords

  • 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing
  • caregiver
  • caries-free children
  • fungal qPCR
  • plaque
  • saliva

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)

Cite this

Kahharova, D., Brandt, B. W., Buijs, M. J., Peters, M., Jackson, R., Eckert, G., ... Zaura, E. (Accepted/In press). Maturation of the Oral Microbiome in Caries-Free Toddlers: A Longitudinal Study. Journal of dental research. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022034519889015

Maturation of the Oral Microbiome in Caries-Free Toddlers : A Longitudinal Study. / Kahharova, D.; Brandt, B. W.; Buijs, M. J.; Peters, M.; Jackson, R.; Eckert, G.; Katz, B.; Keels, M. A.; Levy, S. M.; Fontana, M.; Zaura, E.

In: Journal of dental research, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kahharova, D, Brandt, BW, Buijs, MJ, Peters, M, Jackson, R, Eckert, G, Katz, B, Keels, MA, Levy, SM, Fontana, M & Zaura, E 2019, 'Maturation of the Oral Microbiome in Caries-Free Toddlers: A Longitudinal Study', Journal of dental research. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022034519889015
Kahharova, D. ; Brandt, B. W. ; Buijs, M. J. ; Peters, M. ; Jackson, R. ; Eckert, G. ; Katz, B. ; Keels, M. A. ; Levy, S. M. ; Fontana, M. ; Zaura, E. / Maturation of the Oral Microbiome in Caries-Free Toddlers : A Longitudinal Study. In: Journal of dental research. 2019.
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