PURPOSE: To test the effect of temporary caval filtration on pulmonary emboli when a mechanical thrombolytic device is used to treat venous thrombosis and to test the effects of a modified device on caval patency at 30-day follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a canine model of iliocaval subacute thrombosis, mechanical thrombolysis was performed with use of an 8-F over-the-wire Arrow-Trerotola Percutaneous Thrombolytic Device (PTD) with a 9-mm (iliac) or 15-mm (inferior vena cava [IVC]) basket. In six procedures, the device was made of nitinol monofilament, and in another six, it was made of braided stainless steel. All procedures were performed with a nitinol expandable sheath (temporary filter) in the suprarenal IVC. Low-molecular-weight heparin was given daily after the procedure. Venography, pulmonary arteriography, measurement of blood gases, and pulmonary artery (PA) pressure measurement were performed before and after the procedure and at 30-day follow-up. Pulmonary arteriograms from the group treated with stainless-steel devices were compared to those from an earlier group of animals in which the identical procedure was performed without caval filtration. The IVC was examined histologically. RESULTS: Thrombolysis was successful in all animals. Rare segmental and subsegmental pulmonary emboli (PE) were seen arteriographically; compared to procedures without filters, there was a significant reduction in PE (P < .002). However, a mild increase in pulmonary artery pressure, decrease in pH, and increase in pCO2 were observed postprocedurally. At 30-day follow-up (n = 11), IVC patency was preserved in 45% (n = 5) of animals overall. Caval patency was significantly better in animals in which the combination of stainless-steel devices was used (five of six = 83% vs zero with nitinol device; P = .015). Histologically, the stainless-steel device caused little intimal injury and fibrosis - less than that seen with the nitinol device. CONCLUSIONS: Temporary filtration reduces, but does not completely eliminate, PE during mechanical thrombolysis. The stainless-steel device results in less intimal injury and better caval patency than the nitinol device.
- Animal model
- Veins, thrombosis
- Venae cavae, filters
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine