Mechanisms of probiotic action

Implications for therapeutic applications in inflammatory bowel diseases

Charles Vanderpool, Fang Yan, D. Brent Polk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

196 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Probiotics are defined as nonpathogenic living microorganisms, including some commensal bacterial flora, which have beneficial effects on host health and disease prevention and/or treatment. Clinical trials have shown beneficial effects of probiotics on several human diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), which are among the most-studied diseases testing probiotics as a potential therapy. However, a significant question regarding clinical use of probiotics is the mechanism underlying the wide range of actions. Studies discussed in this review suggest 3 distinct cellular and molecular mechanisms for probiotic regulation in IBD therapy: 1) Probiotics block pathogenic bacterial effects by producing bactericidal substances and competing with pathogens and toxins for adherence to the intestinal epithelium; 2) Probiotics regulate immune responses by enhancing the innate immunity and modulating pathogen-induced inflammation via toll-like receptor-regulated signaling pathways; and 3) Probiotics regulate intestinal epithelial homeostasis by promoting intestinal epithelial cell survival, enhancing barrier function, and stimulating protective responses. Probiotics modulate host cell signaling pathways, including Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and nuclear factor-κB to mediate these intestinal epithelial functions. It is hoped that developing a mechanistic understanding of probiotic action will provide the rationale to support the development of new hypothesis-driven studies to define the clinical efficacy in preventive, adjunctive, or alternative treatments for IBD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1585-1596
Number of pages12
JournalInflammatory Bowel Diseases
Volume14
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - 2008
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Probiotics
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Therapeutics
Toll-Like Receptors
Intestinal Mucosa
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Innate Immunity
Crohn Disease
Cell Survival
Homeostasis
Epithelial Cells
Clinical Trials
Inflammation
Health

Keywords

  • Immune response
  • Intestinal epithelial cell
  • Mechanism
  • Probiotics
  • Signaling pathway

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology
  • Immunology and Allergy

Cite this

Mechanisms of probiotic action : Implications for therapeutic applications in inflammatory bowel diseases. / Vanderpool, Charles; Yan, Fang; Polk, D. Brent.

In: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Vol. 14, No. 11, 2008, p. 1585-1596.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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