Mechanisms of ventricular fibrillation in canine models of congestive heart failure and ischemia assessed by in vivo noncontact mapping

Thomas H. Everett IV, Emily E. Wilson, Scott Foreman, Jeffrey E. Olgin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Scopus citations


Background - Much of the research performed studying the mechanism of ventricular fibrillation (VF) has been in normal ventricles rather than under a pathological condition predisposing to VF. We hypothesized that different ventricular substrates would alter the mechanism and characteristics of VF. Methods and Results - Three groups of dogs were studied: (1) control (n=8), (2) pacing-induced congestive heart failure (n=7), and (3) acute ischemia produced by 30 minutes of mid left anterior descending artery ligation (n=5). A noncontact mapping catheter (Ensite 3000, ESI) was placed via transseptal into the left ventricle (LV), along with an electrophysiology catheter. A multielectrode basket catheter (EP Technologies) was placed in the right ventricle, along with an electrophysiology catheter. Several episodes of VF were recorded in each animal. In addition to constructing isopotential and isochronal maps of the VF episodes, signals underwent frequency domain analysis as a fast Fourier transform was performed over a 2-second window every 1 second. From the fast Fourier transform, the dominant frequency was determined, and the organization was calculated. In control dogs, meandering, reentrant, spiral wave activity was the main feature of the VF. The congestive heart failure group showed evidence of a stable rotor (n=3), evidence of a focal source (n=3), or no evidence of a driver in the LV (n=1). The ischemic group showed evidence of an initial focal mechanism that transitioned into reentry. In the control and ischemic groups, the LV always had higher dominant frequencies than the right ventricle. Conclusions - Different ventricular substrates produced by the different animal models altered the characteristics of VF. Thus, different mechanisms of VF may be present in the LV, depending on the animal model.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1532-1541
Number of pages10
Issue number11
StatePublished - Sep 13 2005


  • Fibrillation
  • Fourier analysis
  • Mapping

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)

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