Mechanotransduction and functional response of the skeleton to physical stress: The mechanisms and mechanics of bone adaptation

Charles H. Turner, Fredrick Pavalko

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

247 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The skeleton's primary mechanical function is to provide rigid levers for muscles to act against as they hold the body upright in defiance of gravity. Many bones are exposed to thousands of repetitive loads each day. During growth and development, the skeleton optimizes its architecture by subtle adaptations to these mechanical loads. The mechanisms for adaptation involve a multistep process of cellular mechanotransduction including: mechanocoupling - conversion of mechanical forces into local mechanical signals, such as fluid shear stresses, that initiate a response by bone cells; biochemical coupling - transduction of a mechanical signal to a biochemical response involving pathways within the cell membrane and cytoskeleton; cell-to-cell signaling from the sensor cells (probably osteocytes and bone lining cells) to effector cells (osteoblasts or osteoclasts) using prostaglandins and nitric oxide as signaling molecules; and effector response - either bone formation or resorption to cause appropriate architectural changes. These architectural changes tend to adjust and improve the bone structure to its prevailing mechanical environment. Structural changes can be predicted, to some extent, by mathematical formulas derived from three fundamental rules: (1) bone adaptation is driven by dynamic, rather than static, loading; (2) extending the loading duration has a diminishing effect on further bone adaptation; (3) bone cells accommodate to a mechanical loading environment, making them less responsive to routine or customary loading signals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)346-355
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Orthopaedic Science
Volume3
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 1998

Fingerprint

Mechanics
Skeleton
Bone and Bones
Cellular Mechanotransduction
Osteocytes
Gravitation
Osteoclasts
Bone Resorption
Cytoskeleton
Osteoblasts
Growth and Development
Osteogenesis
Prostaglandins
Nitric Oxide
Cell Membrane
Muscles

Keywords

  • Biomechanics
  • Bone density
  • Mechanical stress
  • Mechanotransduction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

Cite this

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