Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder affecting nearly 50% of adults in the United States. If left untreated, it can lead to the destruction of both soft and mineralized tissues that constitute the periodontium. Clinical management, including but not limited to flap debridement and/or curettage, as well as regenerative-based strategies with periodontal membranes associated or not with grafting materials, has been used with distinct levels of success. Unquestionably, no single implantable biomaterial can consistently guide the coordinated growth and development of multiple tissue types, especially in very large periodontal defects. With the global aging population, it is extremely important to find novel biomaterials, particularly bioactive membranes and/or scaffolds, for guided tissue (GTR) and bone regeneration (GBR) to aid in the reestablishment of the health and function of distinct periodontal tissues. This chapter offers an update on the evolution of biomaterials (i.e. membranes and bioactive scaffolds) as well as material-based strategies applied in periodontal regeneration. The authors start by providing a brief summary of the histological characteristics and functions of the periodontium and its main pathological condition, namely periodontitis. Next, a review of commercially available GTR/GBR membranes is given, followed by a critical appraisal of the most recent advances in the development of bioactive materials that enhance the chance for clinical success of periodontal tissue regeneration.
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