Meta-Analyses of Externalizing Disorders: Genetics or Prenatal Alcohol Exposure?

Leah Wetherill, Tatiana Foroud, Charles Goodlett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Externalizing disorders are heritable precursors to alcohol dependence, common in children of alcoholics (COA), and in children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Pregnancies involving alcohol exposure sufficient to affect the fetus may involve women with genetic risk for alcohol dependence. We hypothesized that known PAE will increase the odds of having an externalizing disorder compared to COA. Methods: The odds ratios of 3 externalizing disorders (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], conduct disorder [CD], and oppositional defiant disorder [ODD]) were obtained for 2 domains: (i) PAE and (ii) COA, by estimating the logged odds ratio (LOR) for each study. Permutation tests were implemented to compare LORs for PAE versus COA studies within each disorder, including PAE versus an alcohol dependent (AD) mother and PAE versus an AD father. Results: In PAE studies, the odds of ADHD and CD were elevated. Rates of all 3 disorders were elevated in COA studies. Permutation tests revealed that the mean LOR for ADHD was significantly higher in PAE studies compared to: COA (p = 0.01), AD mother (p < 0.05), and AD father (p = 0.03). No differences were found for ODD (p = 0.09) or CD (p = 0.21). Conclusions: These results provide compelling evidence of an increased risk of ADHD in those with PAE beyond that due to parental alcohol dependence or a genetic liability, consistent with a unique etiology most likely due to direct alcohol exposure during prenatal development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAlcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2017

Fingerprint

Inborn Genetic Diseases
Meta-Analysis
Alcohols
Alcoholics
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
Conduct Disorder
Alcoholism
Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders
Odds Ratio
Genetics
Fathers
Mothers

Keywords

  • Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
  • Children of Alcoholics
  • Externalizing Disorders
  • Genetics
  • Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Toxicology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Meta-Analyses of Externalizing Disorders : Genetics or Prenatal Alcohol Exposure? / Wetherill, Leah; Foroud, Tatiana; Goodlett, Charles.

In: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 01.01.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{cc010df93d9b4b3ab60770cb9c00cf06,
title = "Meta-Analyses of Externalizing Disorders: Genetics or Prenatal Alcohol Exposure?",
abstract = "Background: Externalizing disorders are heritable precursors to alcohol dependence, common in children of alcoholics (COA), and in children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Pregnancies involving alcohol exposure sufficient to affect the fetus may involve women with genetic risk for alcohol dependence. We hypothesized that known PAE will increase the odds of having an externalizing disorder compared to COA. Methods: The odds ratios of 3 externalizing disorders (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], conduct disorder [CD], and oppositional defiant disorder [ODD]) were obtained for 2 domains: (i) PAE and (ii) COA, by estimating the logged odds ratio (LOR) for each study. Permutation tests were implemented to compare LORs for PAE versus COA studies within each disorder, including PAE versus an alcohol dependent (AD) mother and PAE versus an AD father. Results: In PAE studies, the odds of ADHD and CD were elevated. Rates of all 3 disorders were elevated in COA studies. Permutation tests revealed that the mean LOR for ADHD was significantly higher in PAE studies compared to: COA (p = 0.01), AD mother (p < 0.05), and AD father (p = 0.03). No differences were found for ODD (p = 0.09) or CD (p = 0.21). Conclusions: These results provide compelling evidence of an increased risk of ADHD in those with PAE beyond that due to parental alcohol dependence or a genetic liability, consistent with a unique etiology most likely due to direct alcohol exposure during prenatal development.",
keywords = "Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Children of Alcoholics, Externalizing Disorders, Genetics, Prenatal Alcohol Exposure",
author = "Leah Wetherill and Tatiana Foroud and Charles Goodlett",
year = "2017",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1111/acer.13535",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research",
issn = "0145-6008",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Meta-Analyses of Externalizing Disorders

T2 - Genetics or Prenatal Alcohol Exposure?

AU - Wetherill, Leah

AU - Foroud, Tatiana

AU - Goodlett, Charles

PY - 2017/1/1

Y1 - 2017/1/1

N2 - Background: Externalizing disorders are heritable precursors to alcohol dependence, common in children of alcoholics (COA), and in children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Pregnancies involving alcohol exposure sufficient to affect the fetus may involve women with genetic risk for alcohol dependence. We hypothesized that known PAE will increase the odds of having an externalizing disorder compared to COA. Methods: The odds ratios of 3 externalizing disorders (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], conduct disorder [CD], and oppositional defiant disorder [ODD]) were obtained for 2 domains: (i) PAE and (ii) COA, by estimating the logged odds ratio (LOR) for each study. Permutation tests were implemented to compare LORs for PAE versus COA studies within each disorder, including PAE versus an alcohol dependent (AD) mother and PAE versus an AD father. Results: In PAE studies, the odds of ADHD and CD were elevated. Rates of all 3 disorders were elevated in COA studies. Permutation tests revealed that the mean LOR for ADHD was significantly higher in PAE studies compared to: COA (p = 0.01), AD mother (p < 0.05), and AD father (p = 0.03). No differences were found for ODD (p = 0.09) or CD (p = 0.21). Conclusions: These results provide compelling evidence of an increased risk of ADHD in those with PAE beyond that due to parental alcohol dependence or a genetic liability, consistent with a unique etiology most likely due to direct alcohol exposure during prenatal development.

AB - Background: Externalizing disorders are heritable precursors to alcohol dependence, common in children of alcoholics (COA), and in children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Pregnancies involving alcohol exposure sufficient to affect the fetus may involve women with genetic risk for alcohol dependence. We hypothesized that known PAE will increase the odds of having an externalizing disorder compared to COA. Methods: The odds ratios of 3 externalizing disorders (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], conduct disorder [CD], and oppositional defiant disorder [ODD]) were obtained for 2 domains: (i) PAE and (ii) COA, by estimating the logged odds ratio (LOR) for each study. Permutation tests were implemented to compare LORs for PAE versus COA studies within each disorder, including PAE versus an alcohol dependent (AD) mother and PAE versus an AD father. Results: In PAE studies, the odds of ADHD and CD were elevated. Rates of all 3 disorders were elevated in COA studies. Permutation tests revealed that the mean LOR for ADHD was significantly higher in PAE studies compared to: COA (p = 0.01), AD mother (p < 0.05), and AD father (p = 0.03). No differences were found for ODD (p = 0.09) or CD (p = 0.21). Conclusions: These results provide compelling evidence of an increased risk of ADHD in those with PAE beyond that due to parental alcohol dependence or a genetic liability, consistent with a unique etiology most likely due to direct alcohol exposure during prenatal development.

KW - Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

KW - Children of Alcoholics

KW - Externalizing Disorders

KW - Genetics

KW - Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85035213595&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85035213595&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/acer.13535

DO - 10.1111/acer.13535

M3 - Article

C2 - 29063614

AN - SCOPUS:85035213595

JO - Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research

JF - Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research

SN - 0145-6008

ER -