OBJECTIVE: We evaluate associations of metabolic syndrome (MetS), C-reactive protein (CRP), and a CRP-incorporated definition of MetS (CRPMetS) with risk of all-cause mortality in a biracial population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied 23,998 participants in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort, an observational study of black and white adults ≥45 years old across the U.S. Elevated CRP was defined as ≥3 mg/L and MetS by therevised Third Report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III; ATP III) criteria (three of five components). CRPMetS was defined as presence of three out of six components, with elevated CRP added to ATP III criteria as a sixth component. Cox models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause mortality, and population attributable risk (PAR) was calculated. Stratified analyses based on race and diabetes status were performed. RESULTS: There were 9,741 participants (41%) with MetS and 12,179 (51%) with CRPMetS at baseline. Over 4.8 years of follow-up, 2,050 participants died. After adjustment for multiple confounders, MetS, elevated CRP, and CRPMetS were each significantly associated with increased mortality risk (HRs 1.26 [95% CI 1.15-1.38], 1.55 [1.41-1.70], and 1.34 [1.22-1.48], respectively). The PAR was 9.5% for MetS, 18.1% for CRP, and 14.7% for CRPMetS. Associations of elevated CRP and of CRPMetS with mortality were significantly greater in whites than blacks, while no differences in associations were observed based on diabetes status. CONCLUSIONS: By definition, CRPMetS identifies more people at risk than MetS but still maintains a similar mortality risk. Incorporating CRP into the definition for MetS may be useful in identifying additional high-risk populations to target for prevention.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Advanced and Specialized Nursing