An improved understanding of which patients are at higher risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) is important to designing interventions to reduce degraded quality of life after VTE. Although metabolic syndrome (MetS), the clustering of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and obesity has been associated with a hypofibrinolytic state, data linking VTE recurrence with MetS remain limited. The purpose of this study was to measure the prevalence of MetS in patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) across a large population and determine its effect on VTE recurrence. This was a retrospective analysis of a large statewide database from 2004 to 2017. We measured the frequency with which patients with DVT carried a comorbid International Coding of Diseases diagnosis of MetS components. Association of MetS with VTE recurrence was tested with a multiple logistic regression model and VTE recurrence as the dependent variable. Risk of VTE recurrence conferred by each MetS component was assessed by Kaplan-Meier curves with the log-rank statistic. A total of 151 054 patients with DVT were included in this analysis. Recurrence of VTE occurred in 17% overall and increased stepwise with each criterion for MetS. All 4 components of MetS had significant adjusted odds ratios (OR) for VTE recurrence, with hyperlipidemia having the largest (OR, 1.8), representing the 4 largest ORs of all possible explanatory variables. All 4 MetS variables were significant on Kaplan-Meier analysis for recurrence of VTE. These data imply a role for appropriate therapies to reduce the effects of MetS as a way to reduce risk of VTE recurrence.
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