The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) transcription factors are nuclear receptors initially identified for their key role in regulating metabolic processes. Recent studies designed to identify the role of PPARα, -β, and -γ in vivo uncovered extrametabolic roles that may be less well known in the heart. In this review, we describe what is known about these extrametabolic roles of PPARs, including regulation of cardiac inflammation, extracellular matrix remodeling, oxidative stress, and regulation of cardiac hypertrophy. Lastly, we discuss the emerging role of PPARs in cell cycle regulation and angiogenesis in noncardiac systems that may be applicable to heart biology. Although this review primarily discusses the extrametabolic role of PPARα, the most studied PPAR isoform in the heart, we highlight where possible what is known about the unique and overlapping roles of the PPAR isoforms in terms of metabolic function.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology