Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a powerful phenomenon whereby an episode of ischemic injury protects the kidney from subsequent injury. Xu et al. provide new insights into the protective effects of delayed IPC and its inhibition of apoptosis by implicating a modulatory role for the microRNA miR-21. This study adds another layer to our understanding of IPC, but also hints at the complexity of the system triggered by this process.
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