Renal cell carcinomas comprise a heterogeneous group of epithelial neoplasms with diverse biologic potential and variable clinical outcomes. The application of molecular and cytogenetic techniques to the study of renal neoplasms has improved our understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for tumor initiation and progression. Molecular classification of renal cell carcinomas has also provided new avenues for diagnosis, clinical outcome, and therapy response prediction. In this article, we review the molecular markers for various renal epithelial neoplasms and discuss the mechanisms underlying the development of these neoplasms. We also evaluate the use of molecular and cytogenetic techniques in establishing an accurate diagnosis in difficult cases and their potential usefulness in accurately classifying renal neoplasms, assessing prognosis, and selecting appropriate therapy.
- Gene expression profiling differential diagnosis
- Molecular genetics
- Molecular pathology
- Renal neoplasms
- Tumor origin
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine