Neuroendocrine tumors of the enteropancreatic axis are often multifocal. We have investigated whether multifocal intestinal carcinoid tumors and multifocal pancreatic endocrine tumors arise independently or whether they originate from a single clone with subsequent intramural or intrapancreatic spread. Twenty-four cases, including 16 multifocal intestinal carcinoid tumors and eight multifocal pancreatic endocrine tumors, were studied. Genomic DNA samples were prepared from 72 distinct tumor nodules using laser capture microdissection. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) assays were done using markers for putative tumor suppressor genes located on chromosomes 9p21 (p16), 11q13 (MEN1), 11q23 (SDHD), 16q21, 18q21, and 18q22-23. In addition, X chromosome inactivation analysis was done on the tumors from eight female patients. Twenty-two of 24 (92%) cases showed allelic loss in at least one tumor focus, including 15 of 16 (94%) cases of multifocal carcinoid tumors and 7 of 8 (88%) cases of multifocal pancreatic endocrine tumors. Eleven of 24 (46%) cases exhibited a different LOH pattern for each tumor. Additionally, 9 of 24 (38%) cases showed different LOH patterns among some of the coexisting tumors, whereas other coexisting tumors displayed the same allelic loss pattern. Two of 24 (8%) cases showed the same LOH pattern in every individual tumor. X chromosome inactivation analysis showed a discordant pattern of nonrandom X chromosome inactivation in two of six informative cases and concordant pattern of nonrandom X chromosome inactivation in the four remaining informative cases. Our data suggest that some multifocal neuroendocrine tumors of the enteropancreatic axis arise independently, whereas others originate as a single clone with subsequent local and discontinuous metastasis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research