With emerging minimally invasive surgical techniques in total hip arthroplasty, there has been anecdotal evidence of an increase in periprosthetic fractures associated with the insertion of the prosthesis into the femur. This is likely the result of diminished visibility, auditory and tactile feedback for a surgeon operating through much smaller incisions. This study attempts to identify a means to supplement the surgeon's tactile and auditory senses by using damage identification techniques, typically used in civil and mechanical structures, to determine when a cementless femoral implant is fully seated. A tapered femoral component was instrumented with accelerometers and a PZT patch and data was obtained as the femoral component was being impacted into a third generation replicate femur. Five replicate femurs were prepared for a cementless femoral component by an orthopedic surgeon using standard implant-specific instrumentation. Acceleration measurements were taken in the direction of impaction and in the two transverse directions. Signal processing techniques were applied to the acceleration time histories to determine if features exist that can be used to determine when the implant is fully seated. The PZT patch was used as an actuator, as well as a sensor, and impedance measurements were taken to determine if impedance could be used as a feature. This paper discusses the experimental set-up, the signal processing techniques used, and the subsequent results.