Many inherited metabolic diseases or inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) cause movement disorders in children. This review focuses on chorea, dystonia, myoclonus, tremor, and parkinsonism. Broad neurometabolic categories commonly responsible for pediatric movement disorders include mitochondrial cytopathies, organic acidemias, mineral metabolism and transport disorders, neurotransmitter diseases, purine metabolism abnormalities, lipid storage conditions, and creatine metabolism dysfunction. Each movement disorder can be caused by many IEM and several of them can cause multiple movement abnormalities. Dietary modifications, medications, and increasingly specific therapy can improve outcomes in children with movement disorders caused by IEM. Recognition and characterization of secondary movement disorders in children facilitate their management and diagnosis, and possible treatment of an underlying IEM.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Clinical Neurology